TABLE OF CONTENTS
Part One ľ
Purpose Of The Team……………………………………
Part Two ľ
Developing The Team…………………………………….
Tool #1 — The Skill
Tool #2 — Managing
People And Performance During Change…….
Part Three ľ
Tool #3 — Team
Building Exercises / Initiative Games………………
— Maintaining Team Spirit……………………………….
This thesis / project supports the
current literature provided by the Boy Scouts of America and is intended to
enhance not only the presentation topics of this literature but create
alternate paths of instruction to meet the needs of the home units.
This thesis / project will contain
three parts and experience two phases. The first part is the “why” part and
will review how the methods of team building has benefited other levels of the
home unit. This part will discuss why team building is essential as a ‘method
of instruction’ that supports the methods of Scouting to achieve Scouting’s
The second part is the “what” part
and will discuss the importance of team building and the expected results. This
part will describe the basic skills a
leader or group facilitator needs to build a team and those skills needed by
the team to be successful in accomplishing the goals of particular tasks or
projects. This part will focus on the specific skill of delegation — a vital
tool in strengthening the relationship of the team while reinforcing the team’s
longevity of existence.
The third part is the “how” part and
it is here that a door to limitless, creative learning is explained as well as
how to design a “Team Building” syllabus adaptable to all levels of Scouting,
both within and outside of the home unit. This part will explain how
‘initiative games’ provide an atmosphere that creates the desire to learn while
conceiving cooperation from individuals.
The first phase of this thesis /
project is the application phase. The application phase is the writing of this
thesis / project and the development of a “Team Building” syllabus adaptable to
all levels of Scouting. The development of this syllabus laid the framework to
the development of this thesis / project. The research conducted and resources
acknowledged are the by-product of this effort.
The second phase of this thesis /
project is the practical phase. Results of a one day course of training at the
committee level will be recorded, evaluated, and available at the completion
and submission of this thesis.
Postscript: I have always believed
strongly that talent and skill in all organizations, whether it is sports,
business, or Scouting, are not gender-related. So for the sake of clarity only,
I use the pronoun “he.” Please be aware that it refers in all cases to either
gender. Many references to the appendix will be noted throughout the body of
this thesis. The appendix is where the majority of the research is documented
to provide the conclusions to this thesis / project. I have also included quotations,
some that are anonymous, and some from well known people to help emphasize the
parts in the body of this thesis.
II. Part One —
group of persons joined together in an action; build, increase and
“Teamwork divides the task and doubles the success.”
Teams come in many shapes and sizes,
for various purposes and with many different ground rules. The popularity of
the word “team” used in the various organizations of the 1990’s give us the
impression that “team” is synonymous with the word “good.” However, teams are
nothing new. They are organizational groups capitalizing on the athletic team
In order to understand how a
successful team is effective, we need to look at what makes them work, where
they work best, and what effort is required to truly get team commitment,
synergy, and productivity. A group of people does not a team make. A
high-performing team, much like a good relationship, requires communication,
commitment, behavior change, and continuous feedback. All of these activities
are hard work and require skills that are not easily learned, especially within
the context of a crisis, whether it’s business corporation, a sports team, or a
specific unit level in Scouting. These skills are better learned within the
context of everyday work or experiences of learning teams.
Defining The Purpose Of The Team
aren’t where we want to be, we aren’t where we ought to be, but thank goodness
we aren’t where we used to be.”
Holtz, head football coach, University of Notre Dame
When defining the purpose of a team,
four questions should be answered:
¤ What is our
¤ What do we stand
¤ Where do we want to
¤ Who are we?
Answering these four questions
defines the purpose of the team, hence, creating a team mission statement. A
mission statement is important because it sets forth in general terms the broad
intent of the organization. It does not refer to anything specific such as
plans or project details. A mission statement is a powerful tool that can
provide a purpose for people to focus their attention and energy and enables
them to accurately and consistently—resisting distractions—work and move in the
same direction. (see appendix B-1)
B. Leading The Team
“Leadership is an attitude before it is an ability.”
Leaders in the not-for-profit arena,
as in the corporate world, need to view each challenge with a view of possibility. The very nature of the
resource—the volunteer—demands that a leader be a nurturer. A leader’s main function is to show appreciation.
Volunteers work for ‘good feelings’, not paychecks, perks and parking spaces.
A clear vision is important. A
demonstrated commitment is essential. A sense of team is basic. But unless a
volunteer leader continually recognizes and acknowledges the contributions of
their volunteers, the success of their projects is likely to be limited. No
task is more important than the people involved.
Positions of leadership create a
certain potential for power and control. The challenge is to remember that the
misuse of these will drive people away. People want to be ‘asked’, not ‘told’.
People expect to be asked to think, not just listen and obey.
Leader is best when people barely know he exists.”
The misuse of leadership and its
power will lead to three predictable outcomes. Followers will fight. When pushed they will push back.
Those who do not like fighting will take flight.
They will simply leave. And, finally, the meek will submit. Chances are they will not contribute enthusiastically, they
will simply follow orders and wait for the task to be completed. They may leave
at the first opportunity they encounter.
reason you don’t understand me, Edith, is because I’m talking to youse in
English and you’re listenin’ to me in Dingbat!”
Effective leaders listen. Effective leaders tune into and
care about the views, biases, values and perspectives of those they work with.
Effective leaders realize that these are their
realities. The views of some may not be based on facts, but they affect
people’s responses. An effective leader will confront differences without using
accusations. The aim of an effective leader is to clarify misconceptions.
have two ears and only one tongue in order that we may hear more and speak
The ultimate success of any
organization, unit, team, community or corporation, will hinge on the skills of
those in positions of leadership, how they execute their power, how loose their
rein, how empowering their control. An effective volunteer leader can control
the balance of power between the relationship, whether its between the chairman
and committee or the leader and staff. If one or the other tends to gain more
power and this becomes conspicuous to the other, productivity drastically
declines. The power one has over the other is dependent on each person in the
relationship receiving his or her needed degree of satisfaction and
gratification. That, is what volunteer work is all about.
C. Summary of Why
time we ask more of ourselves than we think we can give . . . and then give it
. . .
All people are
team players, whether we realize it or not. Our significance arrives through
our vital connections to other people, through all the teams in our lives.
Family life is a central team experience. Career teams may be a newly hatched
company or a department in a very large corporation, an industry leader or a
struggling contender, a team of scientists or doctors, or the faculty of a
school. A neighborhood community action group is a team, and so is a
There is always someone who is the
key player. The effective leader. The one who lifts the team, who sets the
stage for its greatest accomplishments. He knows how to blend the talents and
strengths of individuals into a force that becomes greater than the sum of the
parts. He knows how to create an environment in which the talents can flourish.
In Scouting, “building the team” is
initiated in the Scoutmaster’s Junior
Leader Training Kit, no. 3422 — page 79, with advanced team
building training literature offered by BSA national supply in Outdoor Skills Instruction —Team Building,
no. 33004. Initiative games and patrol activities provide on-going team
building experiences for the youth under the supervision of the Scoutmaster,
but there is no literature specific to team building at the adult level with
the exception of the Outdoor Skills
Instruction — Team Building manual, which provides a seminar outline that
is both mentally and physically intense.
Team building at the troop level using the patrol method is not
structured to be mentally and physically intense but is formatted to be an
on-going learning process. Scouting, at the adult level, or we should say that
the adults in Scouting, are creating new types of committees to deal with the
new challenges that global change bring on an almost daily basis (or it seems
like so). Team building is not specific to be so mentally and physically
intense for achieving the goal or objective of the assigned task. This thesis /
project will attempt to provide an alternative path or resource that is neither
mentally or physically intense. The topics, skills, and tools discussed can be
utilized at any level in Scouting.
You can teach skills. You can even,
to some degree, teach people to think. But you can’t teach attitude. People who
have participated on any teams understand the give and take necessary to
succeed in an environment that demands teamwork. They have both cooperative and
competitive experience. They are comfortable with leading as well as following.
Team building creates a group attitude.
together is a beginning, staying together is progress, and working together
a team is success.”
III. Part Two — What
“It is your attitude, not your aptitude, which determines
Teamwork is the product of spirit,
attitude, and enthusiasm. It’s about how you can get everyone to work together
toward the same goal. The teamwork philosophy promotes camaraderie and a
win-win situation for all concerned.
Scouting, the troop committee as well as those committees at the district and
council level, present many opportunities for teams to develop. Once a mission
statement is developed, the ‘main’ committee divides into sub-committees that
establish the task / project objectives or goals. As these objectives / goals
are achieved, the team’s performance reflects the commitment to the ‘shared vision’ or mission statement.
In order to understand how an
effective team achieves excellence, we need to look at the steps of action
planning by the team and the stages of development related to the themes and
behavior of the team.
A. Building and Developing the Team
Six Steps of a
Working Model for Team Excellence
Step 1: Individuals
map tasks / functions.
Step 2: Team members compile master map.
Step 3: Team
creates quantified statements of
excellence (lists application of skills, resources, tactics) for each task
Step 4: Team creates measuring systems.
Step 5: Team assesses current levels of
performance against statements of
Step 6: Team creates action plan to achieve model of excellence.
steps create the four areas of basic or initial level of performance (current).
Statement of Excellence:
Five Steps of
Action Planning for Excellence
The team then ‘fine-tune’ its action
plan by creating a series of time-framed action steps that will move the team’s level of performance from the
current level to model of excellence.
The method: “WWWWWH” : Who, What, Where, When, Why, How. Using these questions
to compare each task / function against the corresponding statement of
excellence establishes the five steps of action planning:
Step 1: Identify barriers.
Step 2: Brainstorm action steps for removing
Step 3: Brainstorm other steps, besides
Step 4: Prioritize action steps.
Step 5: Assign deadlines, responsibilities
and next progress check.
These five time-framed action steps
help define the six areas of action planning for excellence. The six areas are:
Statement of Excellence:
Steps to Remove Barriers:
What, by Whom, by When:
Five Stages of
Team Development: Themes and Behaviors
Teams follow a specific,
developmental sequence. Understanding the sequence of development will provide
introspect to where you / your team is and at what stage. Once a team
accomplishes its goals / objectives it does not vaporize or cease to exist. The
team or newly created team establishes new goals / objectives to continue to
participate in achieving the ‘shared vision’ or mission statement.
Cyclical: Stages occur naturally and in
order. Timing is dependent on nature of group, membership and group leadership.
Developmental: Each stage contains an issue /
challenge that must be resolved for the group to move to the next stage.
Thematic: Themes for each stage fall into
task (getting the work done) and relationship / maintenance (keeping group
together; helping it work effectively).
5. ADJOURN / REFORM
MANAGEMENT VS. LEADERSHIP
power • Personal power
Administers • Innovates
• Complexity •
Processes (how? what?) • People (why? what for?)
Transactional (exchange) •
• Does things right • Does the right thing
ROLE OF MANAGEMENT AND LEADERSHIP IN TEAM BUILDING
the characteristics of behavior affected by the task theme will give us better
focus on the developmental process of the group. Group process is the
interaction the group experiences. It is important because it reflects the
continuity, maturity, productivity and honesty of the group.
People assume different kinds of
roles within different groups, depending upon how safe they feel and how
interested they are in the task. These roles generally fall into two
categories: task or maintenance. When we assume task roles, they help the group to accomplish its objectives. They
might do such things as coordinate, evaluate, give information and record
information. Maintenance roles are the ones that help the group interact
comfortably, so the task can be accomplished in the most productive manner.
When people assume a maintenance role, they do things like encourage, mediate,
agree with and congratulate individuals for good ideas. Some roles interfere
with the task and maintenance of the group, such as: blocking others’ comments,
seeking recognition, dominating and avoiding the point.
By learning to be aware of group process
— and helping others to be aware of it — people can accomplish more and feel
better about the interaction.
B. Tool #1 — The Skill of Delegation
not put a sword in a madman’s hand.”
In order to improve on our
delegation skills, we need to think about the issues involved with delegation
such as the what, why, who,and how.
Delegation is management. To delegate effectively is to manage effectively. It
is the entrusting of a specific task or project by one individual to another.
You are transferring a particular task or project that you either assign to
someone or normally perform.
Delegation is usually a temporary
procedure, although it is possible for a delegated task to evolve into a
Delegation can occur in any
direction within the unit (organization):
Traditional conceptions of
delegation often limit it to a downward transfer of a task or project, yet
thinking of delegation as downward, lateral, or upward will enhance its
benefits to the unit (organization).
Delegation is a powerful tool that
can help leaders improve the performance of the unit. Unfortunately,
traditional conceptions of delegation often make this tool underutilized and
misunderstood. Negative notions of delegation such as “abdicating responsibility
for a task,” “letting someone else do the dirty work,” and “giving a job to
someone who can’t do it well” inhibit leaders from tapping delegation’s full
potential. For example:
— Distrust of team members. “My staff is
not capable of handling that job.”
— Reluctance to share
power. “Things get all confused when more than one person has power on a
— Misunderstanding of delegation.
“Delegation is too time-consuming.”
— Fear of delegation. “Delegation is a
— Overly detail-oriented. “I want to be
involved in the process every step of the way.”
— My way only. “It has to be done this way
or no way at all.”
— Perfectionism. “It won’t be done right
if it is done by my staff.”
— Playing it safe. “If I delegate, I will
have to do things that I’m less accustomed to.”
Besides the traditional conceptions
of delegation, let’s review some of the symptoms of poor delegation we all have
witnessed and / or experienced in the past:
“I-thought-it-was-done” syndrome. The assignment you thought had been
completed last week unexpectedly shows up incomplete. Good delegation practices
inform people about schedules, expectations, and status situations.
of work. Everyone is always playing catch-up. You have overnight or weekend
homework. The backload continues to build
up. Crisis situations constantly ariseas deadlines approach. These problems
stem from poor delegation practices. Rid yourself of these headaches!
almost-successful project. This project could have been a boom, but instead
it was conceived at only one level. Ideas from various levels would have given
the foresight needed for the plan to achieve its full potential.
— The overloaded
leader. This leader is always struggling to complete several jobs at the
same time. The workflow never stops. Is this leader’s delegation practices
crying for reform? A checkup sure wouldn’t hurt.
— Unenthusiastic staff
members. Staff members are disappointed and unhappy about the leader’s
perceived lack of confidence in their capabilities. Challenge your staff and
help them to develop by using delegation effectively.
There are three aspects of
delegation — responsibility, authority, and accountability — lets clarify and
Contrary to what many leaders believe, the delegator
retains ultimate responsibility for the successful completion of a task. You
have final control over the situation, supervising it as you see fit. The delegatee, however, is responsible for
meeting specific, intermediate goals of the project.
Although leaders disagree on whether authority can be delegated, it can be
transferred for the delegated project within a limited context. Sufficient
authority should be transferred to the delegatees to ensure that results meet
the delegator’s objectives and schedule, even if this means expanding the
delegatees’ authority during the given task.
Delegatees should be held accountable for the established goals and must
understand how their performance will be judged. Reflections and evaluations
are useful here. Everyone should understand that their judgments, methods, and
mistakes will be evaluated, and that they can and will be replaced if their
performance is unsatisfactory.
Using the guidelines of these three
aspects, we can encourage creativity, cleverness, and originality when we
delegate. The staff needs the freedom to be innovative in problem-solving, even
if their methods are not the same as the leader’s. They need to be allowed to
make their own mistakes, learn from them, and then try again. The delegation
should be a learning experience for all.
Remembering the “Two T’s,” trust and time, will greatly aid in accomplishing effective delegation.
— Trust. While
someone may truly lack the skills, experience, or training to complete a task,
they need to be trusted. When deficiencies exist restructure the task, train,
or reassign the delegation. More often than not, faith will prevail and also
build self-confidence. A free rein is needed in order to do what was asked of
them to do.
— Time. Many
leaders begin the delegation process well, but fizzle out as the process
unfolds. Take time to provide miniappraisals and feedback for the delegatee.
While delegation may require an initial time investment, this will more than
pay for itself in the long run.
Delegation is not a one-step action,
but an ongoing process with many components. Trust and time therefore epitomize
our new conception of delegation that envisions the effective process as a
relationship between two or more people. As in any relationship, we must invest
time and show trust for the delegation to be successful.
Benefits of Effective Delegation
— To ensure that the
task is done by the right person. No leader, regardless of their
competence, can adequately perform each function as well as the person who does
it on a daily basis or has the most experience. Those with the best talents
should perform that specific task and effective delegation ensures that this is
accomplished at the lowest appropriate level.
— To have better
trained, more capable leaders. Delegation can help develop skills,
motivation, and self-confidence, qualities that are beneficial to any unit
(organization). Task assignments can groom leaders for promotion, thereby
providing the unit (organization) with more desirable leaders.
— To build teamwork,
cohesion, and spirit. Staff members who receive delegation assignments feel
better about themselves, their task, and their leader. As leaders and staff
members develop relationships during delegation projects, teamwork and cohesion
are cultivated. All units (organizations) strive to achieve teamwork, cohesion,
and spirit. Effective delegation helps achieves these goals.
increase productivity and efficiency. Freeing leaders for tasks only they
can perform and optimizing the use of human resources increase overall
productivity and efficiency. By reducing stress for leaders and providing
challenges for staff members, productivity and efficiency are promoted.
“Well, now that I know what delegation is and the benefits
of why, how do I know when to do it?”
When Should I and What Should I Delegate
Deciding What to Delegate: Starting The Process
Starting the process of what to
delegate involves simple, critical thinking. Begin by considering and answering
the following questions:
— What is the purpose of the delegation?
* To decrease workload
* Personal growth development of others such as skills,
confidence, motivation, decision making, problem-solving.
* To complete a task ahead of time or to prevent schedule
— Should I delegate this task?
* Knowing the purpose of the task
helps in determining whether or not to delegate.
* Ensure that
the task is better done by someone other than yourself.
— What exactly do I want done?
Specify the scope of the assignment.
Explain the assignment to the person
you are delegating to and give as much detail as necessary. Begin the
delegation relationship by choosing the tasks that you will delegate.
Experience dictates that some jobs can be delegated, while others cannot. Divide
the workload into 3 categories:
(1) Tasks you can delegate
* Routine Jobs
* Thinking / Judgment
* People / Relational
(2) Delegation during crisis
* Leave careful instructions
* Designate a substitute
(3) Tasks you should not delegate
* Tasks for which no one
* The complex situation
* Maintaining morale
Tasks and situations can be
discussed without delegation. Other team members may have the objectivity and
maturity to help put a difficult situation into perspective. Many leaders have
found it helpful to ask the opinions of their staff at all levels on crucial
matters in broadening their perspective. They are seeking experience and
opinions, not avenues for delegation.
Having decided what to delegate, the
next decision must be to whom the task will be delegated. The right person to
delegate to is not always the most skillful or experienced. The selection will
depend on the situation, nature of the job, and purposes of the delegation.
Selecting the right person to do the work is an evaluative process, and they
must be both capable and willing to handle responsibility. A personnel survey
or evaluation interview are excellent ways to assess characteristics of the
staff while providing insight into their interests and aspirations. Some
critical points to consider when pinpointing those qualified for delegation:
— Don’t overestimate capabilities.
— Don’t underestimate capabilities.
— Can the person handle additional duties.
— Indicate the goals and direction toward which they aspire.
— Have they made independent decisions within the parameters
of their positions and authority, and whether these decisions were “right”.
After the evaluation process is
completed, you should be able to separate those to whom delegation can be made
with a high chance of success from those who are unsuited for delegation. Show patience. A persons’ ability to
handle added responsibility and authority comes in stages.
The five simple rules of selection:
1. Must be available for the
2. Match skills to the demands of
3. Spread your delegations among as
many as possible.
4. Avoid delegating tasks during the
first three months of tenure.
5. Don’t overlook the possibility of
assigning the task to 2 or more.
Delegation can be thought of as a
process that consists of five basic components.
“If you do not know where you are going, you will probably
wind up somewhere else.”
You must work with the delegatee to
determine the expectations and goals that you can realistically set. Specify
concrete, measurable goals and objectives that can be evaluated. Unclear, vague
goals increase the likelihood of failure. Most importantly, put the goals in
writing so that there can be no misunderstanding. You clarify what you want in
your important personal relationships — do the same in your delegation
Imagine trying to run a race without
a finish line. Goals provide the motivating force that make activities
productive. You need a way to determine when you have finished and how to pace
yourself. Goal-setting merely requires that management and staff communicate.
The What, When, and How of Goal-setting.
The what, when, and how questions
define the goal-setting process.
1. What is to be
done? Spell out the goal for the person. The motivation level is directly
linked to accomplishing stated tasks.
2. When is it to
be completed? Time frames should be realistic and definite, yet flexible. Allow
for wild-card situations that were not anticipated when the goal was actually
3. How will the
goal be reached? Recognize the resources required for goal achievement. Some
situations require no outside assistance, while others require a great deal of coaching and training. Consider
other priorities the person might have to avoid possible conflicts later on.
Plan before committing time and resources to a delegation.
4. How will
success be measured? Is the goal or objective assigned easily measurable in
terms of quantity or whether there are also qualitative factors involved.
The Four Basic Steps of Goal-setting.
Specifying the task.
2. Describing and communicating the
3. Determining performance criteria.
4. Constructing an action plan.
Goal-setting is the starting block
of delegation. Setting concrete, measurable, attainable goals is the basis for
authority, accountability, and responsibility. Goals establish boundaries
around the delegation project and improve its chances of success. Goals provide
the yardstick for evaluation. Evaluate.
“Frown on lapses in information. When people admit that they
did not keep you
informed, let them know you don’t want that kind of
Communication is a two-way process.
It is the lifeblood of delegation — all the components of delegation require
effective communication, from goal-setting to evaluation. Improving this skill
will provide greater personal satisfaction for everyone, increased productivity
and efficiency, and smoother working relationships and teamwork with fewer
complaints and misunderstandings. Practice the following:
¤ clarifying the message
¤ listening to the message
¤ providing necessary information
¤ using appropriate language, tone,
¤ requesting feedback
¤ exchanging ideas, feelings, and
¤ using nonverbal signals to support
and recognizing the barriers to effective communication can prevent the
negative impact upon the success of a delegation.
¤ differences between
the communicators: a fundamental barrier between people that stems from
differences in backgrounds, personalities, beliefs, education, religion, life
experience, and other areas.
dissonance: our ability to receive messages is limited by our tendency to
hear what we only want to hear or expect — the human mind resists what it does
not expect or want to perceive.
inclinations: our natural tendency to judge or evaluate statements and to
reach hasty conclusions. It is natural to evaluate a statement from your own
frame of reference instead of understanding the speaker’s point of view.
¤ singular viewpoints:our
judgmental inclinations lead us to see situations from a single point of view,
instead of considering a number of view-points. Operating with a closed mind
prevents two-way communication and increases ignorance.
¤ time constraints: limits
on time impedes in-depth communication. Busy people tend to give hurried one-way instructions and then
move quickly to the next task.
¤ fear of the
consequences: people sometimes withhold negative information from others to
protect a person’s feelings or a friendship.
besides withholding negative information, they often resist receiving it. When
people are criticized, they often become emotional and excited. Defensive reactions to feedback on job
performance are common.
¤ stereotyping: attitudes
favoring or rejecting certain groups without examining individual
circumstances, traits, or characteristics.
the tendency to see everything as black or white. This tendency distorts
reality and oversimplifies situations.
vocabularies: specialists have their own technical terms and jargon. The
jargon is familiar to those within the specialized field but usually
unintelligible to outsiders. Acronyms and abbreviations will turn a
conversation into a monologue.
¤ different word
meanings: many words have several meanings and can become confused in
conversation. Words often convey meanings to a receiver quite different from
the meaning intended by the sender.
¤ ignoring nonverbal
signals (body language): tone of voice, gestures, and appearance are the
most important factors in determining how a message is received and understood.
In general, the sender is attentive only to their spoken words, preoccupied
with choosing their words and are unaware of the tone of voice and their
although we can perform several tasks simultaneously, we never do more than one
thing at once perfectly, especially when listening. Some examples:
— we allow
the environment to distract us.
— we have fallen into the habit of talking and interrupting
— we are often thinking about many other things.
— we want to refute what the other person has said. If we do
not do so immediately, we may forget to make the point or lose the opportunity
to do so.
— we let our mind wander while listening and think we can
catch up in the conversation later. Nay, nay.
“Employ good communication practices from the very
Achieving Effective Communication
Effective communication requires
continual attention, as the barriers listed demonstrate. There are techniques
that will help establish open two-way communication:
¤ Establish multiple
communication channels. Supply a
notebook in which staff members can write comments, a box for messages, or
suggestion forms. Written systems
provide another option for staff who are too busy or are too timid to
communicate messages in person.
¤ Encourage open
communication. Set the example of being open and honest. Provide feedback
and ideas to others and they will feel more comfortable about sharing their
ideas and feelings. Reward rather than punish open expression of feelings,
opinions, or problems. Reward openness by showing appreciation for those who
share negative or sensitive messages and thank them for their openness.
expectations beforehand. Determine the expectations of the recipient before
delivering a message. If the message is at odds with those expectations, make
the receiver realize that something unexpected will be coming. Force people to
examine their own attitudes, stereotypes, and expectations at the beginning of
the discussion. The leader will also benefit from analyzing their own
expectations prior to every discussion. Another way to break through
expectations is to send an unmistakable
signal that something different will be confronting the receiver. Announce the
unexpected message at the outset of the discussion, or jolt people out of
routines by changing the format, tone, or setting of conversations.
Active Listening: Listening as Communication
Listening is an active and complex
process. Train the mind to be perceptive and to accept information for
discussion. Poor listening habits will result in conflicts, errors, and
inefficiency. Proper listening will result in more accurate communication and
more successful relationships. Effective listening provides two important
benefits: you will gain information that was previously missed through poor
listening, and if you don’t ultimately agree with the other individuals, at
least they will feel that you are fair and open-minded. If we are narrow-minded,
we cannot listen actively. Understand the active listening process to target
personal problem areas and to develop active listening skills. Practice the
process as a four step outline, and when you deviate from the outline, refocus
Feedback: Continuing to Communicate
Feedback provides information about
how you are perceived by others and how your behavior is affecting them.
Solicit feedback in order to check for understanding and to remove as many
communication barriers as possible. Giving and receiving critical feedback is
the most difficult and threatening aspect of the communication process. It
takes an open mind to listen to criticism. For feedback to be effective, it
must be seen as an interaction in which both parties have needs that must be
Communication consists of several
parts: sending and receiving a message, actively listening, giving feedback,
paraphrasing, and asking questions. The current communication style may have to
be radically changed in order to use communication as a mechanism for achieving
“If you want someone to be for you, never let them feel they
are dependent on you. Make them feel you are in some way dependent on them.”
The effectiveness of a leader is
directly related to how he motivates his staff. Motivation is defined as “an
individual’s desire to do something based upon a need.” When a person is
confronted with a need (either perceived or actual), the result is usually a
motivation to perform specific actions for some sort of gratification. Once a
particular need has been satisfied, the motivation to continue the actions
diminishes and remains at zero level until the need arises again.
The Dynamics of Motivation
Individual needs vary in many ways:
¤ Some needs are short
term, while others are long term.
¤ Need levels vary
greatly among individuals.
¤ Need levels change
over a person’s life span.
¤ Need satisfaction is a
constantly changing, dynamic process.
Needs can be classified into three
1. basic or survival needs
water, food, and shelter
2. safety or security needs
— job, level
3. relationship or ego needs
sense of importance
and acceptance from others
— to be
loved and cared for
— sense of
All of these needs can vary in
intensity among individuals while seeking need-fulfillment in these areas. The
extent to which people perceive need-fulfillment directly impacts upon their
mental well-being and will ultimately have a corresponding impact upon
What Motivates People?
(motivators), stimulate people to perform well by providing a genuine sense of
satisfaction. To truly motivate others, one must focus attention on
restructuring tasks so that people can derive more satisfaction directly from
their work. The following criteria should be considered when delegating a task:
One must feel that their work is important, valuable, and worthwhile. They must
believe that their work has a significant impact on others so they will work
hard to see that the impact is positive.
One must feel personally responsible and accountable for the results of their
work. They must have control over the planning and implementation of the task
so they will feel satisfied when others are thriving due to their efforts.
¤ Knowledge of
results. One must receive regular feedback on the results of their efforts.
Feedback clarifies expectations and goals. They can respond to feedback and
adjust their performance. Regular feedback can head off a potential disaster by
¤ Self-interest. All
motivation is concerned with performance. If one is expected to work hard and
efficient, they need to see a benefit. People are motivated to achieve a goal
only when they know it will help them satisfy their own needs. Once they
understand that hard, efficient work will produce a personal payoff, they will
feel motivated to perform
productively. Answer the question, “What’s in it for me?” and you have
established the link between the task goal and the personal need.
Orthodox thinking assumes that
everyone is basically alike in their needs and aspirations and that delegation
situations for the leader are alike. The incorrect conclusion drawn from this
way of thinking is that there is “one best way” to motivate others that will
always work. Nay, nay:
¤ Individuals determine
their own behavior. People make their own decisions about how hard to work,
what level of performance to operate at, and how much loyalty to show.
¤ A combination of
individual and environmental forces determines behavior. An individuals’
unique history influences particular desires and outlooks on the world.
Different work environments may produce different behavior in similar people,
and different people may behave the same way in similar environments.
¤ Needs and desires
differ from individual to individual. People tend to do those things they
see as leading to desirable outcomes (rewards or goals), and avoid doing those
things they see as leading to undesirable outcomes.
Motivation depends upon the
situation and its relationship to an individual’s needs.
Starting The Process
Before employing specific
motivational techniques, consider the following:
¤ Determine each
individual’s goals, needs, and desires.
¤ Determine desired
performance and behavior targets.
¤ Make performance
¤ Link desired
performance to the individual’s goals.
¤ Changes in outcome
Using the principles of goal-setting
establishes the foundation of the motivational process. Some or all of the
following techniques should be considered for fostering motivation in others:
self-control. Shift control of the task from the leader to the individual.
They should assume responsibility for planning and implement the activities to
achievethe delegation’s goals. They will work hard because they are personally
committed to achieving the goals of the
delegation. Not everyone will be willing or able to function independently.
Those with low self-confidence can be assigned full responsibility for a
limited project or for performing a specific function; both will support and
¤ Promote staff
development. Provide opportunities to improve skills. The more skilled they
are, the more likely they are to experience success. Identify specific training
needs and secure additional training or resources. Gaining a new skill or
improving on a current one could be the reward or “link” between the task goal
and individual need.
¤ Encourage broader
involvement. Individuals will feel better about themselves and more excited
about their work if they know they are part of “the bigger picture”. They need
to be assigned responsibility and involved in major decisions.
¤ Provide encouraging
feedback. Give feedback as you monitor performance. Be specific when
praising. How you say something is as important as what you say. Encourage
rather than discourage.
A Final Perspective on Motivation
“Motivate by example.”
“You do not lead by pointing and telling people some place
to go. You lead by going to that place and making a case.”
Supervising techniques include
preparing the way for a delegation, managing performance, and handling the
question of control during a delegation.
¤ Review resources.
¤ Supply necessary information.
¤ Foresee difficulties.
¤ Notify others about the delegation as necessary.
¤ Loosen your grip.
Performance Strategies For Delegation
why the skill being coached is important to the individual learning it.
how to do the job.
Demonstrate how to do the job.
¤ Give the
individual an opportunity to practice the skill or procedure.
constructive feedback, pointing out the good and the bad.
The Question of Control
Ultimate responsibility for a
delegated task remains with the leader. It is both logical and desirable for
the leader to retain some control over a delegation. Degrees of control are
possible in some situations while others require constant control, helping the
individual develop self-confidence by giving more responsibility as it is
earned. If the delegation is headed for failure, you can avert disaster by
being flexible and able to modify the level of control. Besides the project
itself, the individual’s self-confidence is at stake.
Carefully consider the consequences
before deciding how far to let a situation proceed before intervening. Making
the individual deal with a tough situation or take a risk can be the best
experience you can give. Consider if reputation, confidence, morale, or
cooperation will be damaged. Balance the benefits of the experience against the
consequences of failure. Some of the best lessons come from a failed task, with
the result being that people become more resilient and have higher expectations
of themselves. If the final result of a failed delegation is tolerable, stay
your course, but minimize the damage.
the Exception Principle
The exception principle rests on the
idea that the leader needs only to keep track of unexpected or unusual
developments during a delegation. The leader needs to know only significant
alterations to established procedures or goals. The individuals are expected to
find the answers to their questions through established guidelines. Four
considerations guide the use of this principle while supervising a delegation:
1. Develop goals, policies, and procedures that the
individual(s) can use to deal with minor deviations from planned performance.
2. The individual(s) should seek answers on their own,
except when there are no standard operating procedures applying to that
3. Although certain general parameters are set for the
activity, some deviation from planned performance should be expected.
4. Be prepared to adjust the guidelines and procedures as
necessary. Alter the standards when they no longer effectively guide
Some individuals may want to take
the easy way out and immediately seek your advice or want to bail out at the
first sign of trouble. They may lack self-confidence, fear failure, or want
reassurance from you. They often want you to take the job back. This attempt is
called “reverse delegation”. Restrain the urge to take over. Take the job back
only as a last resort and only when:
(1) time constraints necessitate
that you or someone else handle the task
(2) the delegation’s failure will be
too costly in the long run for others involved
steps to help prevent “reverse delegation”:
1. Plan — identify
available resources: time, skill, materials, and authority
2. Communicate —
announce expectations and evaluation criteria clearly, provide constructive
feedback so performance can be adjusted, spell out how you will or will not
assist them, provide clear goals
3. Train and/or coach
— build self-confidence and willingness to take risks through training and/or
coaching, this will alleviate fears and provide the will to tackle the task
Consider these techniques:
¤ Discuss the situation
¤ Draw up a timetable and a plan of
¤ Give advice
¤ Provide assistance
¤ Build confidence
¤ Monitor progress
¤ Taking back and then returning
Supervising delegations requires
planning, communication, monitoring, and coaching. Judgment plays the most important
role in supervising delegations.
“Look for the good things, not the faults. It takes a good
deal bigger-sized brain to find out what is not wrong with people and things,
than to find out what is wrong.”
Evaluations should not be seen
merely as times to judge and criticize, instead it should be seen as a time for
leaders and individuals to come together to talk about past performance. It is
a time when they can give feedback to each other, and consider how to improve
Evaluations provide many benefits to
leaders and individuals:
Individuals Benefit From Evaluations
Evaluations give individuals performance progress reports.
Evaluations acknowledge individuals for their performance.
Evaluations reinforce goals.
It is critical to link evaluations
to established goals.
Are Beneficial To Leaders
¤ Evaluations give leaders an idea of the individual’s
ability and willingness to handle delegated assignments.
Evaluations give feedback to leaders about how they manage delegations.
¤ Evaluations provide leaders with an opportunity to
establish good relationships with individuals.
Successful performance evaluation
begins with preparation. All participants must prepare and must be able to
pinpoint specific instances — positive and negative — that reflects the
individual’s performance. Each should also plan to discuss specific accomplishments
and how to build upon these in the future. The leader can prepare using the
¤ Review the delegation’s goals and
the performance criteria established.
¤ Review conversations concerning
the individual’s progress and the feed-back given.
¤ Arrange a mutually agreeable time
and place to have the evaluation discussion.
¤ Make sure that the evaluation is held in a
private place, and allow sufficient time for the meeting.
The leader can help individuals
prepare for the meeting by suggesting the following:
¤ Review goals for the delegation.
¤ Review performance criteria and
¤ Review performance and compare to
goals and performance criteria.
¤ Consider how your supervision has influenced the
individual’s performance, and how the individual could provide more guidance
and assistance for you in the future.
¤ Think about changes in delegation procedures or
interpersonal communications the individual may suggest to you.
Whose Fault Is It?
When faced with any performance
problem, the leader must realize that there are only two possible causes —
deficiencies in knowledge and deficiencies in execution:
¤ Deficiencies in
knowledge is the leader’s problem. It is the leader’s responsibility to
make sure the individuals have the necessary knowledge and the demonstrated
skills to do their jobs. Training is generally the solution.
¤ Deficiencies in
execution is the individual’s fault. There are four methods for solving
execution deficiency problems. Try each one before taking disciplinary action.
They are linked to effective supervision as well as goal-setting,
communication, and motivation:
“People will behave just about as well as you expect them
Components Of An Effective Evaluation
¤ Give the individual time to
¤ Explain the purpose of the
¤ Separate evaluation meetings from
problem-solving, coaching, or development.
¤ Document assertions.
¤ Ask for the individual’s opinion.
¤ Listen to the individual.
¤ Accept the individual feelings.
¤ Never criticize in an evaluation
¤ Provide specific feedback.
¤ Pinpoint areas for improvement.
¤ Ask for possible improvements in
¤ Allow sufficient time.
¤ Conclude on a encouraging note.
The ability to discuss performance
with others consists of planning and preparing for evaluations; communicating
openly, honestly, and sincerely using “I” statements; and giving and receiving
Delegation Requires Planning, Persistence, and Practice.
“Whatever the source of the leader’s ideas, he cannot
inspire his people unless he expresses vivid goals which in some sense they
C. Tool #2 — Managing People and
Performance During Change
“If we want to change the situation, we first have to change
ourselves. And to change ourselves effectively, we first have to change our
The only thing constant in this
world is change. Currently, our society is experiencing change at a rate of 72%
in a 12 month period. Ten years ago, the rate was 13% in the same amount of
time. Advancements in technology, industry, and communication are the cause of
this rapid rate of change.
Change is a constant catalyst in the
performance chemistry of a team. When a new person joins the group, or the
group reforms, or if a person leaves the group, change occurs. How we deal with
change directly affects the performance results from the team’s efforts.
Understanding the habits, beliefs, behavior, and perceived reality of the team
members will guide the team to shape and improvise strategies to create team
synergy and attain the desired performance results.
take as my guide the hope of a saint:
crucial things, unity —
important things, diversity —
all things, generosity.”
Inaugural address of President
Principles for Managing Performance and Change
We already know that we must change
to keep abreast of the current pace in the world. The hard part is how to change and live through it. Beginning with the leader, following a set of
principles will help the team accomplish this:
› Keep performance results the primary objective of behavior
and skill change. Few people change for the sake of change, especially in
organizations. But they will change when their organization's performance and
their own personal contributions to results depend on doing so. Ensure that
everyone pays constant attention to the performance consequences of their
efforts to learn new skills, behaviors, and working relationships.
“I know of
no more encouraging fact than the unquestionable ability of man to elevate his
life by conscious endeavor.”
Henry David Thoreau
› Continually increase the number of
individuals joining you in taking responsibility for change. No one can
change behavior for someone else. People must take responsibility for their own
behavior change. Do whatever is possible to enlist more and more people to join
you in taking that responsibility. Your goal must be to shape yourself and them
into a cohesive group, a “we” who will make both performance and change happen.
This requires constant attention to whose changes matter most; what skills,
behaviors, and working relationships they need to learn; how those relate to
performance; and whether progress is being made.
lies behind us and what lies before us are tiny matters compared to what lies
› Ensure each person always knows why his or her performance
and change matters to the purpose and results of the whole unit / organization. If we aspire
to lead change, we must continually help people connect their efforts to the
big picture. This means understanding what’s at stake for the unit /
organization and its key constituencies and what’s at stake for the individuals
taking responsibility for their own change. Only by keeping all the
consequences — from opportunity through threat — fresh and compelling can we
hope to guide everyone through the tough, trying period of change itself.
have committed the Golden Rule to memory; let us now commit it to life.”
› Put people in a position to learn by doing and provide them
the information and support needed just
in time to perform. Behavior and skill change is not passive. Adults learn
through doing and searching, failing and succeeding. We must continually create
the performance commitments and contexts that give people a chance to experience change. We should deploy help
— information, training, advice, reinforcement — mostly when people need it to
meet specific goals, not before they have even set any goals.
efforts are an investment in the organization’s future in multiple ways: e.g.,
solving problems and increasing networking for information sharing, skill
and wise use of people’s time and energy.”
› Embrace improvisation as the best path to both performance
and change. If no one has the existing skills, behaviors, or working
relationships needed to perform, how can we expect to rely exclusively on what
we already know? Change demands that we make stuff up, try things out, see what
works and doesn’t work, and talk among ourselves a lot. Improvise, act,
improvise, act, improvise!
lives in lots of places one wouldn’t expect — inside and outside
commonly held paradigms.”
› Use team performance to drive change whenever demanded. No better;
more powerful unit to promote both performance and skill change exists than the
team. Recognize, however; that performance challenges — not the desire to be a
team — are what create a real team. And not every performance challenge demands
a team. Many performance challenges can be handled better through individual
assignment and responsibility. To drive broad unit / organization performance
and change, constantly identify those performance opportunities where teams can
make the biggest difference — and then exploit them for all their worth.
“Allocate time for forming,
storming, norming, and performing every time the team meets, or pay the price
of decreased effectiveness later.”
› Concentrate unit / organization designs on the work people
do, not the decision-making authority they have. When unit /
organization performance depends on new behaviors and skills, only people can make it happen by changing
how they work. Creating new designs, particularly those that articulate a
different vision for how work gets done,
can inspire people to take responsibility for change. Many leaders, however,
divert the focus of new designs away from visions of work to debates over
decision-making authority. As a result, the people whose behavior change
matters most get frozen while a select few engage in time-consuming power
struggles. When the dust clears, whatever new designs emerge say much more
about decisions than work. Efficient decision-making systems give terrific
power to the efforts of already capable people considering new directions.
Decisions also matter to behavior-driven change. When existing people are not
already capable, then the twin of decision making — the work that transforms
decisions into value — matter more. We need to focus our design visions on
“Responsibility falls on all
team members to bring people into discussion and to listen to ideas opposite
from their own. In other words, all members share responsibility for
› Create and focus energy and meaningful language because they
are the scarcest resources during periods of change. Skills and
talent matter, but changing behaviors is hard work. People who must do it need
lots of focused energy to make it
happen. People also need the confidence arising from the language, pictures,
initiatives, and personal actions we employ to describe purpose and approach.
The well-known power of vision comes from both the rational and emotional fuel
it provides. Visions that inspire meaning about the what, why, and how of change help to create, focus, and
harmonize the energy needed to accomplish behavior-driven performance and
change. New language gives life to visions
of what and how change can make a difference to people and performance.
members express good ideas, have open discussion, listen without interrupting,
insights from others. This is helpful in dealing with conflicting views.”
› Stimulate and sustain behavior-driven change by harmonizing
initiatives throughout the unit / organization. No unit /
organization has ever gained traction against both performance and behavior
change without a reinforcing set of initiatives that move simultaneously from
the top down, the bottom up, and across pre-existing organizational boundaries
(not just from the top-down like the ‘traditional conception of delegation’,
pg. 14). No unit / organization has gained traction without a set of
initiatives that permit real people — individually and in teams at all levels — to contribute to the
purpose of the whole unit / organization and reap both inspiration and reward
from doing so. Such harmony and reinforcement happen only if we consciously
seek to achieve them as a key part of starting, stopping, or modifying tasks
team should capture learnings by reflecting on the team process at every
meeting, either before beginning the content discussion or at the end of the
content discussion — or,
at both times. These learnings should be published and considered
valuable to the content actions taken.”
› Practice leadership based on the courage to live the change
you wish to bring about. Change is as change does. The best leaders must clearly
stake out and relentlessly insist on what they want the unit / organization to
become. They must make clear the
principles by which people are expected to get there — and then prevail
relentlessly upon themselves and others in practicing those principles. Search
every possible opportunity to practice the new skills, behaviors, and working
relationships in the very initiatives and tasks by which you hope to bring those
behaviors about. Have the courage to act in the face of your own doubts and
fears. Lead change by example.
stimulate the free flow of ideas. They foster nonthreatening environments where
and leadership take place.”
As Scouters, we constantly seek
improvement in all that we do. Regardless of how successful the outcome or
results of the task given, we are not satisfied with those results but we
acknowledged them with acceptance. We always feel we can do better or we challenge
the next person in line to do so. If we are successful in obtaining our
fundraising goal, we immediately focus our thoughts to create new ideas or
additional ones to exceed it. If we win first place in competition, we
immediately start discussing how we are going to win the next time through
improvements. This is our nature. To improve and make better what currently
exists. Learning, understanding, and practicing the principles of change will
help us through the most difficult part of change — how.
must not cease from exploration. And at the end of all our exploring will be to
we began and to know the place for the first time.”
T. S. Eliot
IV. Part Three —
Individual needs, group needs and task needs are all present during any
group interaction. A team can’t work as a team if they don’t feel like a team.
Personal needs are strongest in the beginning, and because of this, until they
are met the group never really moves on.
Team members should be helped to
become oriented to the personalities
within the group and the expectations of the group. After this takes place,
each is better able to answer whether his personal needs will be met in this
Until team members have a chance to
develop a sense of team, nothing can really be accomplished successfully. If
members come time and time again and never seem to know where the group is
coming from, where it is going, or how they fit into the scheme, then they will
experience frustration. This frustration will prevent members from
concentrating on the group needs and they will be unable to make a meaningful
A. Tool #3 — Team Building Exercises /
The task needs are the surface needs
that bring people together in the first place. But it is difficult to focus on
these objectives if there is conflict on the more basic level, involving the group process.
Team building exercises / initiative
games can help to assure that groups work together with a common focus. Even if
the members know one another, there is no guarantee that for any one project
they will truly feel like a team. Investing time at the beginning of each
meeting for a team building exercise / initiative game will reap substantial
rewards in the long run. By practicing simple exercises that set goals and
achieve them, problem solving exercises, and initiative games, builds trust and
confidence among team members to prepare them for the real situations and tasks
Team building exercises / initiative
games are most practical for committees or groups of fewer than 30. They differ
from “icebreakers” in that icebreakers are designed to introduce new members
and set them at ease. Team Builders
help people get to know one another better. If the people working together on a
task do not feel like a team, they won’t perform like a team.
Once a team feeling is developed
within the group, tension is reduced and support for one another is generated.
Members begin to see how their responsibilities are integrated with and
dependent on the success of the activities of the rest of the group. Frustration
with others diminishes as members become more open to sharing success and
concerns with one another. They also develop an understanding of the obstacles
the others are facing.
The practical phase of this project (see appendix A) consisted of videos —
fast start and youth protection — and presentations from the ‘special feature
topics’ section of the Boy Scout Roundtable Planning Guide. Team games were
used to break the six hour training session into equal periods and provided fun
while developing cooperation among the group. The first two games presented
were ‘get to know you’ games and the others were goal-oriented competitive
types. Before starting any of the games, rules were explained and goals were
set. Time and physical skill were not stressed and the group was encouraged to
express all of their feelings in the reflection period at the end of the game.
The agenda provided in appendix A can be modified to fit any schedule of time
and any amount of activities.
Samples of team building exercises /
initiative games are included in the appendix (see appendix C). These can be adapted to any group to build into
the exercises meaningful ideas or concepts. Use imagination and at all times be
aware of the willingness of the group to devote time to such activities.
Introduce the idea on a positive note and periodically demonstrate how it has
helped, as a result of having taken the time to build a team feeling, those
involved will begin to look forward to these activities. New ones can be tried
by assigning this responsibility to different members each meeting.
Reflection — Maintaining Team Spirit
Practicing the concepts and
principles of team building begin and originate from the key source — the effective leader. The effective
leader “begins with the end in mind.” He develops a personal mission statement
that will parallel the shared vision with others. For example:
Succeed at home first.
ť Seek and merit
ť Never compromise with honesty.
Remember the people involved.
ť Hear both
sides before judging.
ť Obtain counsel
ť Defend those
who are absent.
ť Be sincere yet
ť Develop one
new proficiency a year.
tomorrow’s work today.
ť Hustle while
ť Maintain a
ť Keep a sense
ť Be orderly in
person and in work.
ť Do not fear mistakes — fear only the absence of creative,
constructive, and corrective responses to those mistakes.
ť Facilitate the
success of subordinates.
ť Listen twice
as much as you speak.
ť Concentrate all abilities and efforts on the task at hand,
not worrying about the next task or project.
The effective leader is skilled in the arts of encouraging,
motivating, counseling, delegating, trusting, sharing, disciplining, and most
of all, loving. The secret of success is love.
When U.S. Army Major General John H. Stanford was interviewed, he was asked how
he would go about developing leaders, whether it was in government, community,
or business. He replied:
anyone asks me that question, I tell them I have the secret to success in life.
The secret to success is to stay in love. Staying in love gives you the fire to
really ignite other people, to see inside other people, to have a greater
desire to get things done than other people. A person who is not in love
doesn’t really feel the kind of excitement that helps them to get ahead and to
lead others and to achieve. I don’t know any other fire, any other thing in
life that is more exhilarating and is more positive a feeling than love is.”
Many leaders use the word love freely when talking about their own
motivations to lead. The word encouragement
has its root in the Latin word cor,
meaning “heart.” When leaders encourage others, through recognition and
celebration, they inspire them with courage — with heart. When we encourage
others, we give them heart. And when we give heart to others, we give love.
In a speech before the American
Management Association, Vince Lombardi, famous coach of the Green Bay Packers,
made these remarks:
toughness is humility, simplicity, Spartanism. And one other, love. I don’t
necessarily have to like my associates, but as a person I must love them. Love
is loyalty. Love is teamwork. Love respects the dignity of the individual.
Heartpower is the strength of your corporation.”
General H. Norman Schwarzkopf emphasizes love as well. When Barbara Walters
asked him, during a TV interview, how he would like to be remembered, he
replied, “That he loved his family. That he loved his troops. And that they
Maintaining team spirit is no
secret. Recognize and celebrate through recognition. Group celebrations create
positive interactions among people, providing concrete evidence that people
generally care about each other. Knowing that we are not alone in our efforts
and that we can count on others if necessary provides us the courage to continue
in times of turmoil and stress. It always takes a group of people working
together with a common purpose in an atmosphere of trust and collaboration to
get extraordinary things done. All of this starts and is paced by an effective leader.
Of all the things that sustain a
leader over time, love is the most lasting. It’s hard to imagine leaders
getting up day after day, putting in the long hours and hard work it takes to
get extraordinary things done, without having their hearts in it.
The best-kept secret of successful
leaders is love: being in love with leading, with the people who do the work,
with what their units / organizations produce, and with those who honor the
unit / organization by using its work. Leadership is an affair of the heart,
not of the head.