Gary A. Doney


Scoutmaster, Troop 82


Calusa District, Southwest Florida Council


University of Scouting Arts

Southwest Florida Council  BSA


April 27, 1996













Part One ľ Why………………………………………………………………...




Defining The Purpose Of The Team……………………………………




Leading The Team………………………………………………………..




Summary Of “Why”…………………………………………………….…



Part Two ľ What………………………………………………………………..




Building And Developing The Team…………………………………….




Tool #1 — The Skill Of Delegation……………………………………...




Tool #2 — Managing People And Performance During Change…….



Part Three ľ How……………………………………………………………….




Tool #3 — Team Building Exercises / Initiative Games………………



Closing Reflection — Maintaining Team Spirit……………………………….






I.          Introduction


            This thesis / project supports the current literature provided by the Boy Scouts of America and is intended to enhance not only the presentation topics of this literature but create alternate paths of instruction to meet the needs of the home units.

            This thesis / project will contain three parts and experience two phases. The first part is the “why” part and will review how the methods of team building has benefited other levels of the home unit. This part will discuss why team building is essential as a ‘method of instruction’ that supports the methods of Scouting to achieve Scouting’s aims.

            The second part is the “what” part and will discuss the importance of team building and the expected results. This part will  describe the basic skills a leader or group facilitator needs to build a team and those skills needed by the team to be successful in accomplishing the goals of particular tasks or projects. This part will focus on the specific skill of delegation — a vital tool in strengthening the relationship of the team while reinforcing the team’s longevity of existence.

            The third part is the “how” part and it is here that a door to limitless, creative learning is explained as well as how to design a “Team Building” syllabus adaptable to all levels of Scouting, both within and outside of the home unit. This part will explain how ‘initiative games’ provide an atmosphere that creates the desire to learn while conceiving cooperation from individuals.

            The first phase of this thesis / project is the application phase. The application phase is the writing of this thesis / project and the development of a “Team Building” syllabus adaptable to all levels of Scouting. The development of this syllabus laid the framework to the development of this thesis / project. The research conducted and resources acknowledged are the by-product of this effort.

            The second phase of this thesis / project is the practical phase. Results of a one day course of training at the committee level will be recorded, evaluated, and available at the completion and submission of this thesis.


            Postscript: I have always believed strongly that talent and skill in all organizations, whether it is sports, business, or Scouting, are not gender-related. So for the sake of clarity only, I use the pronoun “he.” Please be aware that it refers in all cases to either gender. Many references to the appendix will be noted throughout the body of this thesis. The appendix is where the majority of the research is documented to provide the conclusions to this thesis / project. I have also included quotations, some that are anonymous, and some from well known people to help emphasize the parts in the body of this thesis.



II.         Part One — Why


team, a group of persons joined together in an action;   build, increase and strengthen

Webster Dictionary

“Teamwork divides the task and doubles the success.”


            Teams come in many shapes and sizes, for various purposes and with many different ground rules. The popularity of the word “team” used in the various organizations of the 1990’s give us the impression that “team” is synonymous with the word “good.” However, teams are nothing new. They are organizational groups capitalizing on the athletic team analogy.

            In order to understand how a successful team is effective, we need to look at what makes them work, where they work best, and what effort is required to truly get team commitment, synergy, and productivity. A group of people does not a team make. A high-performing team, much like a good relationship, requires communication, commitment, behavior change, and continuous feedback. All of these activities are hard work and require skills that are not easily learned, especially within the context of a crisis, whether it’s business corporation, a sports team, or a specific unit level in Scouting. These skills are better learned within the context of everyday work or experiences of learning teams.


            A.        Defining The Purpose Of The Team


“We aren’t where we want to be, we aren’t where we ought to be, but thank goodness we aren’t where we used to be.”  

—Lou Holtz, head football coach, University of Notre Dame


            When defining the purpose of a team, four questions should be answered:

                        ¤          What is our purpose?

                        ¤          What do we stand for?

                        ¤          Where do we want to go?

                        ¤          Who are we?

            Answering these four questions defines the purpose of the team, hence, creating a team mission statement. A mission statement is important because it sets forth in general terms the broad intent of the organization. It does not refer to anything specific such as plans or project details. A mission statement is a powerful tool that can provide a purpose for people to focus their attention and energy and enables them to accurately and consistently—resisting distractions—work and move in the same direction. (see appendix B-1)


            B.        Leading The Team


“Leadership is an attitude before it is an ability.”


            Leaders in the not-for-profit arena, as in the corporate world, need to view each challenge with a view of possibility. The very nature of the resource—the volunteer—demands that a leader be a nurturer. A leader’s main function is to show appreciation. Volunteers work for ‘good feelings’, not paychecks, perks and parking spaces.

            A clear vision is important. A demonstrated commitment is essential. A sense of team is basic. But unless a volunteer leader continually recognizes and acknowledges the contributions of their volunteers, the success of their projects is likely to be limited. No task is more important than the people involved.

            Positions of leadership create a certain potential for power and control. The challenge is to remember that the misuse of these will drive people away. People want to be ‘asked’, not ‘told’. People expect to be asked to think, not just listen and obey.


“A Leader is best when people barely know he exists.”

 — Lao Tse


            The misuse of leadership and its power will lead to three predictable outcomes. Followers will fight. When pushed they will push back. Those who do not like fighting will take flight. They will simply leave. And, finally, the meek will submit. Chances are they will not contribute enthusiastically, they will simply follow orders and wait for the task to be completed. They may leave at the first opportunity they encounter.


“The reason you don’t understand me, Edith, is because I’m talking to youse in English and you’re listenin’ to me in Dingbat!”

—Archie Bunker


            Effective leaders listen. Effective leaders tune into and care about the views, biases, values and perspectives of those they work with. Effective leaders realize that these are their realities. The views of some may not be based on facts, but they affect people’s responses. An effective leader will confront differences without using accusations. The aim of an effective leader is to clarify misconceptions.


“We have two ears and only one tongue in order that we may hear more and speak less.”



            The ultimate success of any organization, unit, team, community or corporation, will hinge on the skills of those in positions of leadership, how they execute their power, how loose their rein, how empowering their control. An effective volunteer leader can control the balance of power between the relationship, whether its between the chairman and committee or the leader and staff. If one or the other tends to gain more power and this becomes conspicuous to the other, productivity drastically declines. The power one has over the other is dependent on each person in the relationship receiving his or her needed degree of satisfaction and gratification. That, is what volunteer work is all about.


            C.        Summary of Why


“Each time we ask more of ourselves than we think we can give . . . and then give it . . .

we grow.”


                        All people are team players, whether we realize it or not. Our significance arrives through our vital connections to other people, through all the teams in our lives. Family life is a central team experience. Career teams may be a newly hatched company or a department in a very large corporation, an industry leader or a struggling contender, a team of scientists or doctors, or the faculty of a school. A neighborhood community action group is a team, and so is a congregation.

            There is always someone who is the key player. The effective leader. The one who lifts the team, who sets the stage for its greatest accomplishments. He knows how to blend the talents and strengths of individuals into a force that becomes greater than the sum of the parts. He knows how to create an environment in which the talents can flourish.

            In Scouting, “building the team” is initiated in the Scoutmaster’s Junior Leader Training Kit, no. 3422 — page 79, with advanced team building training literature offered by BSA national supply in Outdoor Skills Instruction —Team Building, no. 33004. Initiative games and patrol activities provide on-going team building experiences for the youth under the supervision of the Scoutmaster, but there is no literature specific to team building at the adult level with the exception of the Outdoor Skills Instruction — Team Building manual, which provides a seminar outline that is both mentally and physically intense.  Team building at the troop level using the patrol method is not structured to be mentally and physically intense but is formatted to be an on-going learning process. Scouting, at the adult level, or we should say that the adults in Scouting, are creating new types of committees to deal with the new challenges that global change bring on an almost daily basis (or it seems like so). Team building is not specific to be so mentally and physically intense for achieving the goal or objective of the assigned task. This thesis / project will attempt to provide an alternative path or resource that is neither mentally or physically intense. The topics, skills, and tools discussed can be utilized at any level in Scouting.

            You can teach skills. You can even, to some degree, teach people to think. But you can’t teach attitude. People who have participated on any teams understand the give and take necessary to succeed in an environment that demands teamwork. They have both cooperative and competitive experience. They are comfortable with leading as well as following. Team building creates a group attitude.


“Coming together is a beginning, staying together is progress, and working together

as a team is success.”


III.        Part Two — What

“It is your attitude, not your aptitude, which determines your altitude.


            Teamwork is the product of spirit, attitude, and enthusiasm. It’s about how you can get everyone to work together toward the same goal. The teamwork philosophy promotes camaraderie and a win-win situation for all concerned.

            In Scouting, the troop committee as well as those committees at the district and council level, present many opportunities for teams to develop. Once a mission statement is developed, the ‘main’ committee divides into sub-committees that establish the task / project objectives or goals. As these objectives / goals are achieved, the team’s performance reflects the commitment to  the ‘shared vision’ or mission statement.

            In order to understand how an effective team achieves excellence, we need to look at the steps of action planning by the team and the stages of development related to the themes and behavior of the team.


            A.        Building and Developing the Team

Six Steps of a Working Model for Team Excellence

Step 1:            Individuals map tasks / functions.

Step 2:            Team members compile master map.

Step 3:            Team creates quantified statements of excellence (lists application of skills, resources, tactics) for each task / function.

Step 4:            Team creates measuring systems.

Step 5:            Team assesses current levels of performance against statements of excellence.

Step 6:            Team creates action plan to achieve model of excellence.


            These six steps create the four areas of basic or initial level of performance (current). For example:


            Statement of Excellence:

            Measure by:



Five Steps of Action Planning for Excellence

            The team then ‘fine-tune’ its action plan by creating a series of time-framed action steps that will move  the team’s level of performance from the current level to model of excellence. The method: “WWWWWH” : Who, What, Where, When, Why, How. Using these questions to compare each task / function against the corresponding statement of excellence establishes the five steps of action planning:

Step 1:            Identify barriers.

Step 2:            Brainstorm action steps for removing barriers.

Step 3:            Brainstorm other steps, besides removing barriers.

Step 4:            Prioritize action steps.

Step 5:            Assign deadlines, responsibilities and next progress check.

            These five time-framed action steps help define the six areas of action planning for excellence. The six areas are:


            Statement of Excellence:


            Steps to Remove Barriers:

            Other Steps:

            What, by Whom, by When:


Five Stages of Team Development: Themes and Behaviors

            Teams follow a specific, developmental sequence. Understanding the sequence of development will provide introspect to where you / your team is and at what stage. Once a team accomplishes its goals / objectives it does not vaporize or cease to exist. The team or newly created team establishes new goals / objectives to continue to participate in achieving the ‘shared vision’ or mission statement.

Cyclical:               Stages occur naturally and in order. Timing is dependent on nature of group, membership and group leadership.

Developmental:  Each stage contains an issue / challenge that must be resolved for the group to move to the next stage.

Thematic:            Themes for each stage fall into task (getting the work done) and relationship / maintenance (keeping group together; helping it work effectively).










     1.  FORM




     2.  STORM




     3.  NORM




     4.  PERFORM


Problem Solving


     5. ADJOURN /         REFORM





















            Positional power                                                     Personal power

            Administers                                                             Innovates

            Complexity                                                              Change

            Processes (how? what?)                                       People (why? what for?)

            Transactional (exchange)                                     Transformational (empowerment)

            Does things right                                                    Does the right thing


















1. Form



Setting accountabilities

Setting standards

Goal Setting

Being open and honest

Vision and values-driven






2. Storm


Active Listening


Job analysis

Performance assessment

Conflict management

Being patient

Being flexible

Being creative

Kaleidoscopic thinker



3. Norm


Giving constructive










4. Perform


Problem solving

Decision making


Managing by walking


Stewardship delegation






5. Adjourn/Reform





Bringing closure



























Understanding the characteristics of behavior affected by the task theme will give us better focus on the developmental process of the group. Group process is the interaction the group experiences. It is important because it reflects the continuity, maturity, productivity and honesty of the group.

            People assume different kinds of roles within different groups, depending upon how safe they feel and how interested they are in the task. These roles generally fall into two categories: task or maintenance. When we assume task roles, they help the group to accomplish its objectives. They might do such things as coordinate, evaluate, give information and record information. Maintenance roles are the ones that help the group interact comfortably, so the task can be accomplished in the most productive manner. When people assume a maintenance role, they do things like encourage, mediate, agree with and congratulate individuals for good ideas. Some roles interfere with the task and maintenance of the group, such as: blocking others’ comments, seeking recognition, dominating and avoiding the point.


            By learning to be aware of group process — and helping others to be aware of it — people can accomplish more and feel better about the interaction.



            B.        Tool #1 — The Skill of Delegation


“Do not put a sword in a madman’s hand.”

English Proverb


            In order to improve on our delegation skills, we need to think about the issues involved with delegation such as the  what, why, who,and how.




            Delegation is management. To delegate effectively is to manage effectively. It is the entrusting of a specific task or project by one individual to another. You are transferring a particular task or project that you either assign to someone or normally perform.

            Delegation is usually a temporary procedure, although it is possible for a delegated task to evolve into a permanent duty.

            Delegation can occur in any direction within the unit (organization):




            Traditional conceptions of delegation often limit it to a downward transfer of a task or project, yet thinking of delegation as downward, lateral, or upward will enhance its benefits to the unit (organization).

            Delegation is a powerful tool that can help leaders improve the performance of the unit. Unfortunately, traditional conceptions of delegation often make this tool underutilized and misunderstood. Negative notions of delegation such as “abdicating responsibility for a task,” “letting someone else do the dirty work,” and “giving a job to someone who can’t do it well” inhibit leaders from tapping delegation’s full potential. For example:

Distrust of team members. “My staff is not capable of handling that job.”

Reluctance to share power. “Things get all confused when more than one person has power on a project.”

Misunderstanding of delegation. “Delegation is too time-consuming.”

Fear of delegation. “Delegation is a high-risk proposition.”

Overly detail-oriented. “I want to be involved in the process every step of the way.”

My way only. “It has to be done this way or no way at all.”

Perfectionism. “It won’t be done right if it is done by my staff.”

Playing it safe. “If I delegate, I will have to do things that I’m less accustomed to.”


            Besides the traditional conceptions of delegation, let’s review some of the symptoms of poor delegation we all have witnessed and / or experienced in the past:

The “I-thought-it-was-done” syndrome. The assignment you thought had been completed last week unexpectedly shows up incomplete. Good delegation practices inform people about schedules, expectations, and status situations.

Piles of work. Everyone is always playing catch-up. You have overnight or weekend homework. The backload continues to build up. Crisis situations constantly ariseas deadlines approach. These problems stem from poor delegation practices. Rid yourself of these headaches!

The almost-successful project. This project could have been a boom, but instead it was conceived at only one level. Ideas from various levels would have given the foresight needed for the plan to achieve its full potential.

The overloaded leader. This leader is always struggling to complete several jobs at the same time. The workflow never stops. Is this leader’s delegation practices crying for reform? A checkup sure wouldn’t hurt.

Unenthusiastic staff members. Staff members are disappointed and unhappy about the leader’s perceived lack of confidence in their capabilities. Challenge your staff and help them to develop by using delegation effectively.


            There are three aspects of delegation — responsibility, authority, and accountability — lets clarify and define them:

Responsibility: Contrary to what many leaders believe, the delegator retains ultimate responsibility for the successful completion of a task. You have final control over the situation, supervising it as you see fit. The delegatee, however, is responsible for meeting specific, intermediate goals of the project.

Authority: Although leaders disagree on whether authority can be delegated, it can be transferred for the delegated project within a limited context. Sufficient authority should be transferred to the delegatees to ensure that results meet the delegator’s objectives and schedule, even if this means expanding the delegatees’ authority during the given task.

Accountability: Delegatees should be held accountable for the established goals and must understand how their performance will be judged. Reflections and evaluations are useful here. Everyone should understand that their judgments, methods, and mistakes will be evaluated, and that they can and will be replaced if their performance is unsatisfactory.


            Using the guidelines of these three aspects, we can encourage creativity, cleverness, and originality when we delegate. The staff needs the freedom to be innovative in problem-solving, even if their methods are not the same as the leader’s. They need to be allowed to make their own mistakes, learn from them, and then try again. The delegation should be a learning experience for all.

            Remembering the “Two T’s,” trust and time, will greatly aid in accomplishing effective delegation.

Trust. While someone may truly lack the skills, experience, or training to complete a task, they need to be trusted. When deficiencies exist restructure the task, train, or reassign the delegation. More often than not, faith will prevail and also build self-confidence. A free rein is needed in order to do what was asked of them to do.

Time. Many leaders begin the delegation process well, but fizzle out as the process unfolds. Take time to provide miniappraisals and feedback for the delegatee. While delegation may require an initial time investment, this will more than pay for itself in the long run.


            Delegation is not a one-step action, but an ongoing process with many components. Trust and time therefore epitomize our new conception of delegation that envisions the effective process as a relationship between two or more people. As in any relationship, we must invest time and show trust for the delegation to be successful.



Benefits of Effective Delegation


To ensure that the task is done by the right person. No leader, regardless of their competence, can adequately perform each function as well as the person who does it on a daily basis or has the most experience. Those with the best talents should perform that specific task and effective delegation ensures that this is accomplished at the lowest appropriate level.

To have better trained, more capable leaders. Delegation can help develop skills, motivation, and self-confidence, qualities that are beneficial to any unit (organization). Task assignments can groom leaders for promotion, thereby providing the unit (organization) with more desirable leaders.

To build teamwork, cohesion, and spirit. Staff members who receive delegation assignments feel better about themselves, their task, and their leader. As leaders and staff members develop relationships during delegation projects, teamwork and cohesion are cultivated. All units (organizations) strive to achieve teamwork, cohesion, and spirit. Effective delegation helps achieves these goals.

To increase productivity and efficiency. Freeing leaders for tasks only they can perform and optimizing the use of human resources increase overall productivity and efficiency. By reducing stress for leaders and providing challenges for staff members, productivity and efficiency are promoted.


“Well, now that I know what delegation is and the benefits of why, how do I know when to do it?”


When Should I and What Should I Delegate


Deciding What to Delegate: Starting The Process


            Starting the process of what to delegate involves simple, critical thinking. Begin by considering and answering the following questions:

            What is the purpose of the delegation?

* To decrease workload

* Personal growth development of others such as skills, confidence, motivation, decision making, problem-solving.

* To complete a task ahead of time or to prevent schedule conflicts.

            Should I delegate this task?

* Knowing the purpose of the task helps in determining whether or not to delegate.

* Ensure that the task is better done by someone other than yourself.

            What exactly do I want done?

* Specify the scope of the assignment.


            Explain the assignment to the person you are delegating to and give as much detail as necessary. Begin the delegation relationship by choosing the tasks that you will delegate. Experience dictates that some jobs can be delegated, while others cannot. Divide the workload into 3 categories:

            (1) Tasks you can delegate

                        * Routine Jobs

                        * Thinking / Judgment Jobs

                        * People / Relational Jobs

            (2) Delegation during crisis

                        * Leave careful instructions

                        * Postpone

                        * Designate a substitute

            (3) Tasks you should not delegate

                        * Discipline

                        * Tasks for which no one is qualified

                        * The complex situation

                        * Maintaining morale


            Tasks and situations can be discussed without delegation. Other team members may have the objectivity and maturity to help put a difficult situation into perspective. Many leaders have found it helpful to ask the opinions of their staff at all levels on crucial matters in broadening their perspective. They are seeking experience and opinions, not avenues for delegation.




Selecting the Right Person

            Having decided what to delegate, the next decision must be to whom the task will be delegated. The right person to delegate to is not always the most skillful or experienced. The selection will depend on the situation, nature of the job, and purposes of the delegation. Selecting the right person to do the work is an evaluative process, and they must be both capable and willing to handle responsibility. A personnel survey or evaluation interview are excellent ways to assess characteristics of the staff while providing insight into their interests and aspirations. Some critical points to consider when pinpointing those qualified for delegation:

— Don’t overestimate capabilities.

— Don’t underestimate capabilities.

— Can the person handle additional duties.

— Indicate the goals and direction toward which they aspire.

— Have they made independent decisions within the parameters of their positions and authority, and whether these decisions were “right”.


            After the evaluation process is completed, you should be able to separate those to whom delegation can be made with a high chance of success from those who are unsuited for delegation. Show patience. A persons’ ability to handle added responsibility and authority comes in stages.


The five simple rules of selection:

            1. Must be available for the assignment.

            2. Match skills to the demands of the task.

            3. Spread your delegations among as many as possible.

            4. Avoid delegating tasks during the first three months of tenure.

            5. Don’t overlook the possibility of assigning the task to 2 or more.




            Delegation can be thought of as a process that consists of five basic components.


            1. Goal-setting.


“If you do not know where you are going, you will probably wind up somewhere else.”


            You must work with the delegatee to determine the expectations and goals that you can realistically set. Specify concrete, measurable goals and objectives that can be evaluated. Unclear, vague goals increase the likelihood of failure. Most importantly, put the goals in writing so that there can be no misunderstanding. You clarify what you want in your important personal relationships — do the same in your delegation relationship.

            Imagine trying to run a race without a finish line. Goals provide the motivating force that make activities productive. You need a way to determine when you have finished and how to pace yourself. Goal-setting merely requires that management and staff communicate.


The What, When, and How of Goal-setting.

            The what, when, and how questions define the goal-setting process.

1. What is to be done? Spell out the goal for the person. The motivation level is directly linked to accomplishing stated tasks.

2. When is it to be completed? Time frames should be realistic and definite, yet flexible. Allow for wild-card situations that were not anticipated when the goal was actually set.

3. How will the goal be reached? Recognize the resources required for goal achievement. Some situations require no outside assistance, while others           require a great deal of coaching and training. Consider other priorities the person might have to avoid possible conflicts later on. Plan before committing time and resources to a delegation.

4. How will success be measured? Is the goal or objective assigned easily measurable in terms of quantity or whether there are also qualitative factors involved. Evaluate.



The Four Basic Steps of Goal-setting.

            1. Specifying the task.

            2. Describing and communicating the goal.

            3. Determining performance criteria.

            4. Constructing an action plan.


            Goal-setting is the starting block of delegation. Setting concrete, measurable, attainable goals is the basis for authority, accountability, and responsibility. Goals establish boundaries around the delegation project and improve its chances of success. Goals provide the yardstick for evaluation. Evaluate.


            2. Communication.


“Frown on lapses in information. When people admit that they did not keep you

informed, let them know you don’t want that kind of ‘protection.’”


            Communication is a two-way process. It is the lifeblood of delegation — all the components of delegation require effective communication, from goal-setting to evaluation. Improving this skill will provide greater personal satisfaction for everyone, increased productivity and efficiency, and smoother working relationships and teamwork with fewer complaints and misunderstandings. Practice the following:

            ¤ clarifying the message

            ¤ listening to the message

            ¤ providing necessary information

            ¤ using appropriate language, tone, and volume

            ¤ requesting feedback

            ¤ exchanging ideas, feelings, and values

            ¤ using nonverbal signals to support messages


Barriers to effective communication.

            Understanding and recognizing the barriers to effective communication can prevent the negative impact upon the success of a delegation.

¤ differences between the communicators: a fundamental barrier between people that stems from differences in backgrounds, personalities, beliefs, education, religion, life experience, and other areas.

¤ cognitive dissonance: our ability to receive messages is limited by our tendency to hear what we only want to hear or expect — the human mind resists what it does not expect or want to perceive.

¤ judgmental inclinations: our natural tendency to judge or evaluate statements and to reach hasty conclusions. It is natural to evaluate a statement from your own frame of reference instead of understanding the speaker’s point of view.

¤ singular viewpoints:our judgmental inclinations lead us to see situations from a single point of view, instead of considering a number of view-points. Operating with a closed mind prevents two-way communication and increases ignorance.

¤ time constraints: limits on time impedes in-depth communication. Busy people tend to     give hurried one-way instructions and then move quickly to the next task.

¤ fear of the consequences: people sometimes withhold negative information from others to protect a person’s feelings or a friendship.

¤ defensiveness: besides withholding negative information, they often resist receiving it. When people are criticized, they often become emotional and excited. Defensive            reactions to feedback on job performance are common.

¤ stereotyping: attitudes favoring or rejecting certain groups without examining individual circumstances, traits, or characteristics.

¤ absolutization: the tendency to see everything as black or white. This tendency distorts reality and oversimplifies situations.

¤ different vocabularies: specialists have their own technical terms and jargon. The jargon is familiar to those within the specialized field but usually unintelligible to outsiders. Acronyms and abbreviations will turn a conversation into a monologue.

¤ different word meanings: many words have several meanings and can become confused in conversation. Words often convey meanings to a receiver quite different from the meaning intended by the sender.

¤ ignoring nonverbal signals (body language): tone of voice, gestures, and appearance are the most important factors in determining how a message is received and understood. In general, the sender is attentive only to their spoken words, preoccupied with choosing their words and are unaware of the tone of voice and their appearance.

¤ distractions: although we can perform several tasks simultaneously, we never do more than one thing at once perfectly, especially when listening. Some examples:

— we allow the environment to distract us.

— we have fallen into the habit of talking and interrupting too much.

— we are often thinking about many other things.

— we want to refute what the other person has said. If we do not do so immediately, we may forget to make the point or lose the opportunity to do so.

— we let our mind wander while listening and think we can catch up in the conversation later. Nay, nay.

“Employ good communication practices from the very beginning.”



Achieving Effective Communication

            Effective communication requires continual attention, as the barriers listed demonstrate. There are techniques that will help establish open two-way communication:

¤ Establish multiple communication channels. Supply  a notebook in which staff members can write comments, a box for messages, or suggestion forms. Written         systems provide another option for staff who are too busy or are too timid to communicate messages in person.

¤ Encourage open communication. Set the example of being open and honest. Provide feedback and ideas to others and they will feel more comfortable about sharing their ideas and feelings. Reward rather than punish open expression of feelings, opinions, or problems. Reward openness by showing appreciation for those who share negative or sensitive messages and thank them for their openness.

¤ Consider expectations beforehand. Determine the expectations of the recipient before delivering a message. If the message is at odds with those expectations, make the receiver realize that something unexpected will be coming. Force people to examine their own attitudes, stereotypes, and expectations at the beginning of the discussion. The leader will also benefit from analyzing their own expectations prior to every discussion. Another way to break through expectations is to  send an unmistakable signal that something different will be confronting the receiver. Announce the unexpected message at the outset of the discussion, or jolt people out of routines by changing the format, tone, or setting of conversations.


Active Listening: Listening as Communication

            Listening is an active and complex process. Train the mind to be perceptive and to accept information for discussion. Poor listening habits will result in conflicts, errors, and inefficiency. Proper listening will result in more accurate communication and more successful relationships. Effective listening provides two important benefits: you will gain information that was previously missed through poor listening, and if you don’t ultimately agree with the other individuals, at least they will feel that you are fair and open-minded. If we are narrow-minded, we cannot listen actively. Understand the active listening process to target personal problem areas and to develop active listening skills. Practice the process as a four step outline, and when you deviate from the outline, refocus on it:










Feedback: Continuing to Communicate

            Feedback provides information about how you are perceived by others and how your behavior is affecting them. Solicit feedback in order to check for understanding and to remove as many communication barriers as possible. Giving and receiving critical feedback is the most difficult and threatening aspect of the communication process. It takes an open mind to listen to criticism. For feedback to be effective, it must be seen as an interaction in which both parties have needs that must be considered.

            Communication consists of several parts: sending and receiving a message, actively listening, giving feedback, paraphrasing, and asking questions. The current communication style may have to be radically changed in order to use communication as a mechanism for achieving effective delegation.


            3. Motivation



“If you want someone to be for you, never let them feel they are dependent on you. Make them feel you are in some way dependent on them.”


            The effectiveness of a leader is directly related to how he motivates his staff. Motivation is defined as “an individual’s desire to do something based upon a need.” When a person is confronted with a need (either perceived or actual), the result is usually a motivation to perform specific actions for some sort of gratification. Once a particular need has been satisfied, the motivation to continue the actions diminishes and remains at zero level until the need arises again.


The Dynamics of Motivation

            Individual needs vary in many ways:

                        ¤ Some needs are short term, while others are long term.

                        ¤ Need levels vary greatly among individuals.

                        ¤ Need levels change over a person’s life span.

                        ¤ Need satisfaction is a constantly changing, dynamic process.


            Needs can be classified into three categories:

                        1. basic or survival needs

                                    — air, water, food, and shelter

                        2. safety or security needs

                                    — job, level of risk

                        3. relationship or ego needs

                                    — personal sense of importance

                                    — belonging and acceptance from others

                                    — achievement

                                    — to be loved and cared for

                                    — sense of identity


            All of these needs can vary in intensity among individuals while seeking need-fulfillment in these areas. The extent to which people perceive need-fulfillment directly impacts upon their mental well-being and will ultimately have a corresponding impact upon performance.



What Motivates People?

            Content-related factors (motivators), stimulate people to perform well by providing a genuine sense of satisfaction. To truly motivate others, one must focus attention on restructuring tasks so that people can derive more satisfaction directly from their work. The following criteria should be considered when delegating a task:

¤ Meaningfulness. One must feel that their work is important, valuable, and worthwhile. They must believe that their work has a significant impact on others so they will work hard to see that the impact is positive.

¤ Responsibility. One must feel personally responsible and accountable for the results of their work. They must have control over the planning and implementation of the task so they will feel satisfied when others are thriving due to their efforts.

¤ Knowledge of results. One must receive regular feedback on the results of their efforts. Feedback clarifies expectations and goals. They can respond to feedback and adjust their performance. Regular feedback can head off a potential disaster by providing checkpoints.

¤ Self-interest. All motivation is concerned with performance. If one is expected to work hard and efficient, they need to see a benefit. People are motivated to achieve a goal only when they know it will help them satisfy their own needs. Once they understand that hard, efficient work will produce a personal payoff, they will feel     motivated to perform productively. Answer the question, “What’s in it for me?” and you have established the link between the task goal and the personal need.


Rethinking Motivation

            Orthodox thinking assumes that everyone is basically alike in their needs and aspirations and that delegation situations for the leader are alike. The incorrect conclusion drawn from this way of thinking is that there is “one best way” to motivate others that will always work. Nay, nay:

¤ Individuals determine their own behavior. People make their own decisions about how hard to work, what level of performance to operate at, and how much loyalty to show.

¤ A combination of individual and environmental forces determines behavior. An individuals’ unique history influences particular desires and outlooks on the world. Different work environments may produce different behavior in similar people, and different people may behave the same way in similar environments.

¤ Needs and desires differ from individual to individual. People tend to do those things they see as leading to desirable outcomes (rewards or goals), and avoid doing those things they see as leading to undesirable outcomes.


            Motivation depends upon the situation and its relationship to an individual’s needs.


Starting The Process

            Before employing specific motivational techniques, consider the following:

                        ¤ Determine each individual’s goals, needs, and desires.

                        ¤ Determine desired performance and behavior targets.

                        ¤ Make performance targets attainable.

                        ¤ Link desired performance to the individual’s goals.

                        ¤ Changes in outcome should motivate.


            Using the principles of goal-setting establishes the foundation of the motivational process. Some or all of the following techniques should be considered for fostering motivation in others:

¤ Encourage self-control. Shift control of the task from the leader to the individual. They should assume responsibility for planning and implement the activities to achievethe delegation’s goals. They will work hard because they are personally committed to achieving the goals of  the delegation. Not everyone will be willing or able to function independently. Those with low self-confidence can be assigned full responsibility for a limited project or for performing a specific function; both will support and develop self-esteem.

¤ Promote staff development. Provide opportunities to improve skills. The more skilled they are, the more likely they are to experience success. Identify specific training needs and secure additional training or resources. Gaining a new skill or improving on a current one could be the reward or “link” between the task goal and individual need.

¤ Encourage broader involvement. Individuals will feel better about themselves and more excited about their work if they know they are part of “the bigger picture”. They need to be assigned responsibility and involved in major decisions.

¤ Provide encouraging feedback. Give feedback as you monitor performance. Be specific when praising. How you say something is as important as what you say. Encourage rather than discourage.



A Final Perspective on Motivation


“Motivate by example.”


            4. Supervising



“You do not lead by pointing and telling people some place to go. You lead by going to that place and making a case.”


            Supervising techniques include preparing the way for a delegation, managing performance, and handling the question of control during a delegation.


Preparing the Way

            ¤ Review resources.

            ¤ Supply necessary information.

            ¤ Foresee difficulties.

            ¤ Notify others about the delegation as necessary.

            ¤ Loosen your grip.


Three Performance Strategies For Delegation

            1. Appraisal

            2. Communication

            3. Coaching


The Coaching Process

            ¤ Explain why the skill being coached is important to the individual learning it.

            ¤ Explain how to do the job.

            ¤ Demonstrate how to do the job.

            ¤ Give the individual an opportunity to practice the skill or procedure.

            ¤ Give constructive feedback, pointing out the good and the bad.


The Question of Control

            Ultimate responsibility for a delegated task remains with the leader. It is both logical and desirable for the leader to retain some control over a delegation. Degrees of control are possible in some situations while others require constant control, helping the individual develop self-confidence by giving more responsibility as it is earned. If the delegation is headed for failure, you can avert disaster by being flexible and able to modify the level of control. Besides the project itself, the individual’s self-confidence is at stake.


Making the Decision

            Carefully consider the consequences before deciding how far to let a situation proceed before intervening. Making the individual deal with a tough situation or take a risk can be the best experience you can give. Consider if reputation, confidence, morale, or cooperation will be damaged. Balance the benefits of the experience against the consequences of failure. Some of the best lessons come from a failed task, with the result being that people become more resilient and have higher expectations of themselves. If the final result of a failed delegation is tolerable, stay your course, but minimize the damage.


Supervising by the Exception Principle

            The exception principle rests on the idea that the leader needs only to keep track of unexpected or unusual developments during a delegation. The leader needs to know only significant alterations to established procedures or goals. The individuals are expected to find the answers to their questions through established guidelines. Four considerations guide the use of this principle while supervising a delegation:

1. Develop goals, policies, and procedures that the individual(s) can use to deal with minor deviations from planned performance.

2. The individual(s) should seek answers on their own, except when there are no standard operating procedures applying to that particular situation.

3. Although certain general parameters are set for the activity, some deviation from planned performance should be expected.

4. Be prepared to adjust the guidelines and procedures as necessary. Alter the standards when they no longer effectively guide performance.


Turning Around Reverse Delegation

            Some individuals may want to take the easy way out and immediately seek your advice or want to bail out at the first sign of trouble. They may lack self-confidence, fear failure, or want reassurance from you. They often want you to take the job back. This attempt is called “reverse delegation”. Restrain the urge to take over. Take the job back only as a last resort and only when:

            (1) time constraints necessitate that you or someone else handle the task

            (2) the delegation’s failure will be too costly in the long run for others involved


            Three steps to help prevent “reverse delegation”:

1. Plan — identify available resources: time, skill, materials, and authority

2. Communicate — announce expectations and evaluation criteria clearly, provide constructive feedback so performance can be adjusted, spell out how you will or will not assist them, provide clear goals

3. Train and/or coach — build self-confidence and willingness to take risks through training and/or coaching, this will alleviate fears and provide the will to tackle the task


            Consider these techniques:

            ¤ Discuss the situation

            ¤ Draw up a timetable and a plan of action

            ¤ Give advice

            ¤ Provide assistance

            ¤ Build confidence

            ¤ Monitor progress

            ¤ Taking back and then returning delegations


            Supervising delegations requires planning, communication, monitoring, and coaching. Judgment plays the most important role in supervising delegations.


            5. Evaluating



“Look for the good things, not the faults. It takes a good deal bigger-sized brain to find out what is not wrong with people and things, than to find out what is wrong.”


            Evaluations should not be seen merely as times to judge and criticize, instead it should be seen as a time for leaders and individuals to come together to talk about past performance. It is a time when they can give feedback to each other, and consider how to improve future delegations.


Why Evaluate

            Evaluations provide many benefits to leaders and individuals:


Individuals Benefit From Evaluations

            ¤ Evaluations give individuals performance progress reports.

            ¤ Evaluations acknowledge individuals for their performance.

            ¤ Evaluations reinforce goals.


            It is critical to link evaluations to established goals.


Evaluations Are Beneficial To Leaders

¤ Evaluations give leaders an idea of the individual’s ability and willingness to handle delegated assignments.

            ¤ Evaluations give feedback to leaders about how they manage delegations.

¤ Evaluations provide leaders with an opportunity to establish good relationships with individuals.



            Successful performance evaluation begins with preparation. All participants must prepare and must be able to pinpoint specific instances — positive and negative — that reflects the individual’s performance. Each should also plan to discuss specific accomplishments and how to build upon these in the future. The leader can prepare using the following suggestions:

            ¤ Review the delegation’s goals and the performance criteria established.

            ¤ Review conversations concerning the individual’s progress and the feed-back given.

            ¤ Arrange a mutually agreeable time and place to have the evaluation discussion.

¤ Make sure that the evaluation is held in a private place, and allow sufficient time for the meeting.


            The leader can help individuals prepare for the meeting by suggesting the following:

            ¤ Review goals for the delegation.

            ¤ Review performance criteria and established targets.

            ¤ Review performance and compare to goals and performance criteria.

¤ Consider how your supervision has influenced the individual’s performance, and how the individual could provide more guidance and assistance for you in the future.

¤ Think about changes in delegation procedures or interpersonal communications the individual may suggest to you.


Whose Fault Is It?

            When faced with any performance problem, the leader must realize that there are only two possible causes — deficiencies in knowledge and deficiencies in execution:

¤ Deficiencies in knowledge is the leader’s problem. It is the leader’s responsibility to make sure the individuals have the necessary knowledge and the demonstrated skills to do their jobs. Training is generally the solution.

¤ Deficiencies in execution is the individual’s fault. There are four methods for solving execution deficiency problems. Try each one before taking disciplinary action. They are linked to effective supervision as well as goal-setting, communication, and motivation:

                                    1. Set Goals.

                                    2. Give Feedback.

                                    3. Remove Obstacles.

                                    4. Eliminate Punishment.


“People will behave just about as well as you expect them to.”


Components Of An Effective Evaluation

            ¤ Give the individual time to prepare.

            ¤ Explain the purpose of the evaluation.

            ¤ Separate evaluation meetings from problem-solving, coaching, or development.

            ¤ Document assertions.

            ¤ Ask for the individual’s opinion.

            ¤ Listen to the individual.

            ¤ Accept the individual feelings.

            ¤ Never criticize in an evaluation meeting.

            ¤ Provide specific feedback.

            ¤ Pinpoint areas for improvement.

            ¤ Ask for possible improvements in delegation leadership.

            ¤ Allow sufficient time.

            ¤ Conclude on a encouraging note.


            The ability to discuss performance with others consists of planning and preparing for evaluations; communicating openly, honestly, and sincerely using “I” statements; and giving and receiving critical feedback.


Effective Delegation Requires Planning, Persistence, and Practice.


“Whatever the source of the leader’s ideas, he cannot inspire his people unless he expresses vivid goals which in some sense they want.”



            C.        Tool #2 — Managing People and Performance During Change



“If we want to change the situation, we first have to change ourselves. And to change ourselves effectively, we first have to change our perceptions.”


            The only thing constant in this world is change. Currently, our society is experiencing change at a rate of 72% in a 12 month period. Ten years ago, the rate was 13% in the same amount of time. Advancements in technology, industry, and communication are the cause of this rapid rate of change.

            Change is a constant catalyst in the performance chemistry of a team. When a new person joins the group, or the group reforms, or if a person leaves the group, change occurs. How we deal with change directly affects the performance results from the team’s efforts. Understanding the habits, beliefs, behavior, and perceived reality of the team members will guide the team to shape and improvise strategies to create team synergy and attain the desired performance results.


                        “I take as my guide the hope of a saint:

                                    in crucial things, unity —

                                    in important things, diversity —

                                    in all things, generosity.”

                                                                        Inaugural address of President George Bush


Principles for Managing Performance and Change

            We already know that we must change to keep abreast of the current pace in the world. The hard part is how to change and live through it. Beginning with the leader, following a set of principles will help the team accomplish this:

Keep performance results the primary objective of behavior and skill change. Few people change for the sake of change, especially in organizations. But they will change when their organization's performance and their own personal contributions to results depend on doing so. Ensure that everyone pays constant attention to the performance consequences of their efforts to learn new skills, behaviors, and working relationships.



“I know of no more encouraging fact than the unquestionable ability of man to elevate his life by conscious endeavor.”

 Henry David Thoreau


Continually increase the number of individuals joining you in taking responsibility for change. No one can change behavior for someone else. People must take responsibility for their own behavior change. Do whatever is possible to enlist more and more people to join you in taking that responsibility. Your goal must be to shape yourself and them into a cohesive group, a “we” who will make both performance and change happen. This requires constant attention to whose changes matter most; what skills, behaviors, and working relationships they need to learn; how those relate to performance; and whether progress is being made.


“What lies behind us and what lies before us are tiny matters compared to what lies within us.”

                                                                                                            Oliver Wendell Holmes


Ensure each person always knows why his or her performance and change matters to the purpose and results of the whole unit / organization. If we aspire to lead change, we must continually help people connect their efforts to the big picture. This means understanding what’s at stake for the unit / organization and its key constituencies and what’s at stake for the individuals taking responsibility for their own change. Only by keeping all the consequences — from opportunity through threat — fresh and compelling can we hope to guide everyone through the tough, trying period of change itself.


“We have committed the Golden Rule to memory; let us now commit it to life.”

                        Edwin Markham


Put people in a position to learn by doing and provide them the information and support needed just in time to perform. Behavior and skill change is not passive. Adults learn through doing and searching, failing and succeeding. We must continually create the performance commitments and contexts that give people a chance to experience change. We should deploy help — information, training, advice, reinforcement — mostly when people need it to meet specific goals, not before they have even set any goals.


“Team efforts are an investment in the organization’s future in multiple ways: e.g., solving problems and increasing networking for information sharing, skill building, leveraging

experience, and wise use of people’s time and energy.”


Embrace improvisation as the best path to both performance and change. If no one has the existing skills, behaviors, or working relationships needed to perform, how can we expect to rely exclusively on what we already know? Change demands that we make stuff up, try things out, see what works and doesn’t work, and talk among ourselves a lot. Improvise, act, improvise, act, improvise!


“Information lives in lots of places one wouldn’t expect — inside and outside

of commonly held paradigms.”


Use team performance to drive change whenever demanded. No better; more powerful unit to promote both performance and skill change exists than the team. Recognize, however; that performance challenges — not the desire to be a team — are what create a real team. And not every performance challenge demands a team. Many performance challenges can be handled better through individual assignment and responsibility. To drive broad unit / organization performance and change, constantly identify those performance opportunities where teams can make the biggest difference — and then exploit them for all their worth.


“Allocate time for forming, storming, norming, and performing every time the team meets, or pay the price of decreased effectiveness later.”


Concentrate unit / organization designs on the work people do, not the decision-making authority they have. When unit / organization performance depends on new behaviors and skills, only people can make it happen by changing how they work. Creating new designs, particularly those that articulate a different vision for how work gets done, can inspire people to take responsibility for change. Many leaders, however, divert the focus of new designs away from visions of work to debates over decision-making authority. As a result, the people whose behavior change matters most get frozen while a select few engage in time-consuming power struggles. When the dust clears, whatever new designs emerge say much more about decisions than work. Efficient decision-making systems give terrific power to the efforts of already capable people considering new directions. Decisions also matter to behavior-driven change. When existing people are not already capable, then the twin of decision making — the work that transforms decisions into value — matter more. We need to focus our design visions on this.


“Responsibility falls on all team members to bring people into discussion and to listen to ideas opposite from their own. In other words, all members share responsibility for leadership.”


Create and focus energy and meaningful language because they are the scarcest resources during periods of change. Skills and talent matter, but changing behaviors is hard work. People who must do it need lots of focused energy to make it happen. People also need the confidence arising from the language, pictures, initiatives, and personal actions we employ to describe purpose and approach. The well-known power of vision comes from both the rational and emotional fuel it provides. Visions that inspire meaning about the what, why, and how of change help to create, focus, and harmonize the energy needed to accomplish behavior-driven performance and change. New language gives life to            visions of what and how change can make a difference to people and performance.



“Team members express good ideas, have open discussion, listen without interrupting, and

accept insights from others. This is helpful in dealing with conflicting views.”


Stimulate and sustain behavior-driven change by harmonizing initiatives throughout the unit / organization. No unit / organization has ever gained traction against both performance and behavior change without a reinforcing set of initiatives that move simultaneously from the top down, the bottom up, and across pre-existing organizational boundaries (not just from the top-down like the ‘traditional conception of delegation’, pg. 14). No unit / organization has gained traction without a set of initiatives that permit real people — individually and in teams at all levels — to contribute to the purpose of the whole unit / organization and reap both inspiration and reward from doing so. Such harmony and reinforcement happen only if we consciously seek to achieve them as a key part of starting, stopping, or modifying tasks and initiatives.



“The team should capture learnings by reflecting on the team process at every meeting, either before beginning the content discussion or at the end of the content discussion — or,

preferably, at both times. These learnings should be published and considered

equally valuable to the content actions taken.”


Practice leadership based on the courage to live the change you wish to bring about. Change is as change does. The best leaders must clearly stake out and relentlessly insist on what they want the unit / organization to become. They must make clear the principles by which people are expected to get there — and then prevail relentlessly upon themselves and others in practicing those principles. Search every possible opportunity to practice the new skills, behaviors, and working relationships in the very initiatives and tasks by which you hope to bring those behaviors about. Have the courage to act in the face of your own doubts and fears. Lead change by example.


“Leaders stimulate the free flow of ideas. They foster nonthreatening environments where

learning and leadership take place.”


            As Scouters, we constantly seek improvement in all that we do. Regardless of how successful the outcome or results of the task given, we are not satisfied with those results but we acknowledged them with acceptance. We always feel we can do better or we challenge the next person in line to do so. If we are successful in obtaining our fundraising goal, we immediately focus our thoughts to create new ideas or additional ones to exceed it. If we win first place in competition, we immediately start discussing how we are going to win the next time through improvements. This is our nature. To improve and make better what currently exists. Learning, understanding, and practicing the principles of change will help us through the most difficult part of change — how.


“We must not cease from exploration. And at the end of all our exploring will be to arrive

where we began and to know the place for the first time.”

                                                                        T. S. Eliot


IV.       Part Three — How


            Individual needs, group needs and task needs are all present during any group interaction. A team can’t work as a team if they don’t feel like a team. Personal needs are strongest in the beginning, and because of this, until they are met the group never really moves on.

            Team members should be helped to become oriented to the personalities within the group and the expectations of the group. After this takes place, each is better able to answer whether his personal needs will be met in this group.

            Until team members have a chance to develop a sense of team, nothing can really be accomplished successfully. If members come time and time again and never seem to know where the group is coming from, where it is going, or how they fit into the scheme, then they will experience frustration. This frustration will prevent members from concentrating on the group needs and they will be unable to make a meaningful contribution.


            A.        Tool #3 — Team Building Exercises / Initiative Games

Task and Process

            The task needs are the surface needs that bring people together in the first place. But it is difficult to focus on these objectives if there is conflict on the more basic level, involving the group process.

            Team building exercises / initiative games can help to assure that groups work together with a common focus. Even if the members know one another, there is no guarantee that for any one project they will truly feel like a team. Investing time at the beginning of each meeting for a team building exercise / initiative game will reap substantial rewards in the long run. By practicing simple exercises that set goals and achieve them, problem solving exercises, and initiative games, builds trust and confidence among team members to prepare them for the real situations and tasks at hand.

            Team building exercises / initiative games are most practical for committees or groups of fewer than 30. They differ from “icebreakers” in that icebreakers are designed to introduce new members and set them at ease. Team Builders help people get to know one another better. If the people working together on a task do not feel like a team, they won’t perform like a team.

            Once a team feeling is developed within the group, tension is reduced and support for one another is generated. Members begin to see how their responsibilities are integrated with and dependent on the success of the activities of the rest of the group. Frustration with others diminishes as members become more open to sharing success and concerns with one another. They also develop an understanding of the obstacles the others are facing.

            The practical phase of this project (see appendix A) consisted of videos — fast start and youth protection — and presentations from the ‘special feature topics’ section of the Boy Scout Roundtable Planning Guide. Team games were used to break the six hour training session into equal periods and provided fun while developing cooperation among the group. The first two games presented were ‘get to know you’ games and the others were goal-oriented competitive types. Before starting any of the games, rules were explained and goals were set. Time and physical skill were not stressed and the group was encouraged to express all of their feelings in the reflection period at the end of the game. The agenda provided in appendix A can be modified to fit any schedule of time and any amount of activities.

            Samples of team building exercises / initiative games are included in the appendix (see appendix C). These can be adapted to any group to build into the exercises meaningful ideas or concepts. Use imagination and at all times be aware of the willingness of the group to devote time to such activities. Introduce the idea on a positive note and periodically demonstrate how it has helped, as a result of having taken the time to build a team feeling, those involved will begin to look forward to these activities. New ones can be tried by assigning this responsibility to different members each meeting.


V.        Closing Reflection — Maintaining Team Spirit

            Practicing the concepts and principles of team building begin and originate from the key source — the effective leader. The effective leader “begins with the end in mind.” He develops a personal mission statement that will parallel the shared vision with others. For example:

            ť Succeed at home first.

            ť Seek and merit divine help.

            ť Never compromise with honesty.

            ť Remember the people involved.

            ť Hear both sides before judging.

            ť Obtain counsel of others.

            ť Defend those who are absent.

            ť Be sincere yet decisive.

            ť Develop one new proficiency a year.

            ť Plan tomorrow’s work today.

            ť Hustle while you wait.

            ť Maintain a positive attitude.

            ť Keep a sense of humor.

            ť Be orderly in person and in work.

ť Do not fear mistakes — fear only the absence of creative, constructive, and corrective responses to those mistakes.

            ť Facilitate the success of subordinates.

            ť Listen twice as much as you speak.

ť Concentrate all abilities and efforts on the task at hand, not worrying about the next task or project.


             The effective leader is skilled in the arts of encouraging, motivating, counseling, delegating, trusting, sharing, disciplining, and most of all, loving. The secret of success is love. When U.S. Army Major General John H. Stanford was interviewed, he was asked how he would go about developing leaders, whether it was in government, community, or business. He replied:

            “When anyone asks me that question, I tell them I have the secret to success in life. The secret to success is to stay in love. Staying in love gives you the fire to really ignite other people, to see inside other people, to have a greater desire to get things done than other people. A person who is not in love doesn’t really feel the kind of excitement that helps them to get ahead and to lead others and to achieve. I don’t know any other fire, any other thing in life that is more exhilarating and is more positive a feeling than love is.”

            Many leaders use the word love freely when talking about their own motivations to lead. The word encouragement has its root in the Latin word cor, meaning “heart.” When leaders encourage others, through recognition and celebration, they inspire them with courage — with heart. When we encourage others, we give them heart. And when we give heart to others, we give love.

            In a speech before the American Management Association, Vince Lombardi, famous coach of the Green Bay Packers, made these remarks:

            “Mental toughness is humility, simplicity, Spartanism. And one other, love. I don’t necessarily have to like my associates, but as a person I must love them. Love is loyalty. Love is teamwork. Love respects the dignity of the individual. Heartpower is the strength of your corporation.”

            Retired General H. Norman Schwarzkopf emphasizes love as well. When Barbara Walters asked him, during a TV interview, how he would like to be remembered, he replied, “That he loved his family. That he loved his troops. And that they loved him.”

            Maintaining team spirit is no secret. Recognize and celebrate through recognition. Group celebrations create positive interactions among people, providing concrete evidence that people generally care about each other. Knowing that we are not alone in our efforts and that we can count on others if necessary provides us the courage to continue in times of turmoil and stress. It always takes a group of people working together with a common purpose in an atmosphere of trust and collaboration to get extraordinary things done. All of this starts and is paced by an effective leader.

            Of all the things that sustain a leader over time, love is the most lasting. It’s hard to imagine leaders getting up day after day, putting in the long hours and hard work it takes to get extraordinary things done, without having their hearts in it.

            The best-kept secret of successful leaders is love: being in love with leading, with the people who do the work, with what their units / organizations produce, and with those who honor the unit / organization by using its work. Leadership is an affair of the heart, not of the head.













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Appendix — A


Troop 82 committee leader training event held May 18, 1996.

            Included in this appendix:

* Flyer distributed to parents and adult leaders of Troop 82.

* Agenda for the day’s activities.

* Presentation topics taken from the Boy Scout Roundtable Planning Guide in agenda order.

* Hand-outs provided to participants in agenda order.


* Team building games used to break sessions approximately every 60 minutes.


* Evaluation form (participant evaluations available upon request).


Appendix — B


Troop 82 Scoutmaster staff training event held August 24, 1996.

            Included in this appendix:

* Troop 82 adult leader mission statement.

* Task objective list, “The Needs Become Goals.”

* Excluded from this appendix but included in the body of the thesis, “The Skill of Delegation” (pgs. 13-42), used as the outline of instruction.

* Leadership rating and talent summary.


* Problem solving exercises.




Appendix — C


            Included in this appendix:

                        * Exercises — To Build a Sense of Team.

                        * Ideas For Team Building.

* Icebreakers.


                        * Listening I.Q. Worksheet.


                        * Leadership Assessment Worksheet.


                        * Problem Analysis Chart.





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